Capt Arthur WAKEFIELD R N 
- Born: 19 Nov 1799, Burnham Wick ESS
- Died: 17 Jun 1843, Wairau NZ aged 43
Cause of his death was murdered at Tuamarina NZ.
Arthur had long service in the Royal Navy from the age of 11. He was at the taking of the Isles of France and Java, then on the "Chesapeake" at the capture of Washington, and the bombardment of Baltimore.
Arthur led the first emigrants to Nelson N Z in 1841, but lost his life in the Wairau massacre
N Z 1842. Arthur never married.
The following letters are from transcriptions done in the 19th C a copy of which is held at the Nelson Archive.
H. M. Ship Hebrus,Sheerness,
September 26, 1815.
My dear Sister,
I own I have neglected you much and more than I should like myself; you will be much disappointed at not seeing me on Wednesday but I have to inform you that I can not come yet. Only half of us are to go at a time and the Captain said it did not so much signify my going home a weeks hence or now, as my Father was not at home; but I ought to have written to you two days ago. We were paid off yesterday, and all the men sent away, and I am I believe to be kept in the ship on the Peace Establishment. I received L191 pay and I hear that the Prize Money for Java is due and amounts to L42 the first payment, and something like that the second, which will help. Thank God I am not out of employment to be a burden to my Friends as I was once afraid of. I suppose Edward will soon by home, I long to see him for I think he will be much improved in every way. I think it is probable I may be home in a week at the most a fortnight or three weeks, but never mind, we have plenty of Paper, Pens, and Ink, to talk to one another (a la Distance). I shall never be tired of a long letter, let me know all about Father's affairs - &c.
Though I have to stop at the ship for a dreary week or two, there are still comforts, I am not forgotten, by those tender Friends, they still think of me;I was almost wishing it was Summer but I see God has made it so that there are equal comforts in each, in the Summer you can take pleasant walks, and see the beauty of the country but then in Winter spend a pleasant evening by the fire side amidst a number of your dearest friends. Though I am a sailor and condemned to tough out the Fatigues and Noise of a man of war, I can not forget entirely, my Maker, Who gives me more reason to thank Him than any of you. He saves me from such perilous situations , while so many go through the world from one weeks end to another and never deliver up a rough prayer nor thanks for all the benefits they have received, but on the contrary go on swearing and indeed you would think trying who could go the Further down; it is very rarely you meet with a Sea-Faring man that thinks of Religion - it is very remarkable, because they have certainly the most need of its assistance, they who never can trust ten minutes for life, who are thrown up by one wave and down by the other, who ought always be prepared, do not know when they may come into fight, and still they never think of it, at least the generality of them; does it not stand to reason that a man that fears nothing from
the Almighty must be a brave Man and a brave man is so necessary in this kind of life.
Sailors have a false idea in general they think that all religious men are Methodists, directly they hear any think, a little proper, but still so uncommon to them
him they set him down for Methodists Parson directly. Sailors are an uncouth set of beings. They are the most ignorant of all the human race, besides, I think. I shall wait anxiously for a letter.
Give my dearest love to Mother and all at home, Wishing them well, and comfortable. I am in hopes of finding Grandmamma better but still I think this winter will not do her any good, It is getting late
So God bless you,
Ever believe me,
Ham Place Mua
12 May 1837
You will recollect that I mentioned to you at Stoke that Edward had his eye upon New Zealand.I am so far interested about it that I fancy I see an opening for useful and active employment, I have made up my mind to go into the preliminaries, and to go, if not previously employed. I have been reading a great deal on the subject and am delighted with the accounts of the country. I think anybody you could enlist with the rare qualifications stated by Ed., would receive very powerful aid in the furtherance of his
objects, altho' they would probably be advanced more from philanthropic motives than religious ones.The influence is great which will be brought to bear in establishing the settle-
ment, and I fancy it may become a very grand undertaking.
This letter was on the same page as one of the same date to Rev Charles Torlesse by Edward G Wakefield.
9 Broad Street Buildings,
15th February 1841.
My dear Catherine,
You write as if you were surprised at my going to N.Z.; I thought you understood that I had
made up my mind. Everything is going on well towards the starting of the "second colony" which you will see by the N.Z. Journal.I am offered the command of the preliminary expedition and the management of the company's affairs appertaining to it, which I shall accept and hope to leave this country in two months. A good body of colonists is forming and I think we shall have such a party that never left England before, it consists at present of Mr. B. E. Duppa the eldest son of Mr. Duppa of Hollingbourne Home in Kent, my old friend and first Lieutenant in the Rhadamanthus, Mr. 0'Callaghan, two sons of Mr. Tytler of Wodehouselee in Scotland, another son of Lord Petre's and several others who are only waiting the publication of the regulations for the sale of land by the company to announce themselves; as yet we have no clergyman, altho' the church is very much interested about it,I wish we had something definite to tempt Charles with. The Bishopric of New Zealand is settled upon but the nomination is not made, the government is to give a grant of L600 a year, we despair for the present of having one in the New colony, but I do not doubt but the man who goes out with it, in the character of the leading clergyman, will get it before long. It is not unlikely that when the Bishop is nominated he will be allowed to name an Archdeacon for his colony. Two very good appointments have taken place in the Chief Justice and Attorney General.
The dinner to Lord Jobn Russell went off to the satisfaction of every body; Edward is not well and was not there but the mention of his name was received with great satisfaction and applause,I think he will soon get round. He has been bled and blistered for his old complaint on the chest. I do not think his lungs are at all affected, his complaint arises from getting fat and too much work. I have made the acquaintance of Dr. Hinds, almost the most sensible and agreeable man I ever conversed with. I have sent my Father a N.Z. Journal which will answer all his queries.I wrote to him the other day.E.J. has written a long letter to his Father but only talks of returning during this year, he has been very active and useful.
Charlie spent a day here last week, he was very well. Felix
talks of going to N. Z.
Rhadamanthus2nd class sloop, Launched 16 April 1832, Hull Wooden, Propulsion Paddle, 1086 tons, Guns 5,
13 July 1839 Commanded by Commander Arthur Wakefield, Mediterranean.
Sept 26th 1841
In reference to our conversation of this morning relative to the location of the second Colony to be established by the New Zealand Company, I beg shortly to offer a few remarks in writing.
You will learn by the accompanying correspondence between Mr. Duppa and the Secretary of the Company the nature and extent of the proposed settlement and will perceive the impossibility of fulfilling the conditions undertaken by the company by an acceptance
of your proposal of M aharangi as the site of the projected Town. I understood you to admit that it was insufficient for the purpose and to state that the proximity to the capital of the only
districts at the disposal of the Government would be prejudicial to any Town that might be Established thereabouts.
Independently of an unequal competition with the Capital the risk of the removal of emigrants sent out at the expence and for the benefit of the purchasers of land from the Company would
be alone sufficient to preclude me from placing them in those districts. The delay incurred by an examination of them would therefore be useless.
I proceed to the objections you made to grant a choice of a site in the middle island.
That island, it is admitted is British Territory by right of discovery. Your Excellency, however declares it not yet disposable for settlement in consequence of its not having been purchased from the Natives. The Company proposes to proceed to the purchase of any
selected district with the co-operation of the local Government and to defray its expences, to your objection that it is not yet time to colonize that portion of New Zealand, I submit as a means of so doing with ease and advantage to the Crown the available expenditure by the Company of L250,000 in the establishment of a centre of future operations.
No objections appear to exist on the score of European titles which are disposed of by Government regulations and the natives, it is well known, have repeatedly alienated their possessions to various claimants.
The approval of the plan of the 2nd Colony by Lord John Russell and the absence of any restrictions as to the middle island gave the Company every reason to believe that it was open to settlement and the purchasers of land were so given to understand.
Your Excellency' s refusal to give the Company the choice of the best district in the middle island, will not prevent the dispersion of the settlements; as they will be obliged to fall back
upon the right of selecting out of the territory acquired from the Natives previous to your arrival tho' the want of tracts of pasturage which would vary the occupation and interests of the 2nd Colonists from those of Wellington and instead of tending to its prejudice would not only aid it but would be of assistance to the whole of the northern island at present dependent upon New South Wales for stock, must be severely felt.
It remains to me only to point out the disappointment which will be felt by a respectable body of Colonists, should they find that an inferior site has been fixed upon from the want of a more extensive choice, and that the only difficulty in obtaining such choice was the necessary process of purchase from the Natives a process which the Company contemplated in almost any case and to repeat my urgent request that you will be pleased to reconsider your objections and permit the agents of the Company upon their own responsibility to select the position of the intended settlement subject only to the two conditions imposed by Lord John Russell.
I have the honor to be, Sir,
most obedient Servant
(signed) Arthur Wakefield.
Ship Whitby ,
7 November 1841.
I have the honour to inform you that I arrived in Astrolabe Roads on the 9th. ulto., having been obliged to put into Cloudy Bay and Capiti from strong N. W. winds. At the latter place I visited Te Raupero and Hiko who acknowledged positively the sale of the Taitap to you in 1839.
Upon my arrival I immediately despatched two exploring parties to the Southward: Mr. Tuckett and Budge to follow the Eastern border of the valley, and Mr. Browne, Heaphy, and Arnold, the Western. Mr Tuckett returned on the Friday, not giving a favourable account of the land generally which he had traversed, but pronounced some of it to be superior. Messrs.
Browne and Heaphy made a more favourable report of the banks of the Motueka upon their return the next day: but not being satisfied, I despatched Mr. Tuckett again up the Waimea, a river about 15 miles from astrolabe Roads to endeavour to get round a wooded hilly ridge to the Southward, to ascertain whether the Motueka valley extended to the Eastward. Mr. Heaphy accompanied Mr. Tuckett on this journey. I also sent Messrs. Browne and Moore over to a river described to me by a native of Pepin's island, called the Wakatu, with directions to stretch Southward along the foot of the mountains, to ascertain whether there was an opening to the S.E. into the back country.
Upon the return of both of these parties, I received a most favourable report of an extensive district of good land stretching Southward from the Wakatu, from 16 to 20 miles, with and average width of 6 and 7 miles. I went over immediately to examine the harbour, and found that there was deep water inside, with flats outside of about three quarters of a mile, with 9 feet at low water, and the tide rising at the springs 12 feet. I took the brig over (accompanied by the masters of the Whitby and Will-Watch) and into the harbour with great ease. I then returned to Astrolabe roads and brought the other ships over, and they are now all three in the harbour moored in 5 fathoms.
The Whitby grounded on the point coming in, owing to the man at the wheel not giving her the helm, where she remained till the next day's tide when we hove her off, and I believe, without damage, except probably, a few sheets of copper rubbed. She grounded after having passed thro' the channel and had 5 fathoms water her own breadth outside of her.
I suggest the name of Nelson-Haven for the port, as I have now decided upon settling on its shores, where there is a very good site for a town and an easy horse communication with the interior; and where the whole of the suburban land may be taken in a block, if desirable; and a great portion of it is fit for pasture, the soil varying in depth from half a spit to a spit and a half, and in some places two spits, generally upon a clay or marl sub-soil.
The Whitby is nearly discharged, and I hope to have the Arrow cleared and ballasted by the end of the week; by which time I shall have a plan of the harbour ready, and a more explicit one of the District than the rough eye sketch which I beg to enclose. I forward the diary for your information, requesting that it may be forwarded to the Court.
In having fixed so large a settlement where the harbour is not of sufficient size to admit the largest ships, I beg you will assure the Court of Directors that I have weighed carefully all the objections, and all the difficulties, both political and local, of finding a better place; and if it should not turn out quite to our expectations, the best has been done for the Company, the settlers and the proprietors of land. I have no misgiving as to the agricultural success, and I am inclined to think that the map of the country sections will be more valuable
than the town, although there will be some of the town sections very valuable.
Mr. Tuckett has shewn great energy in exploring the country; Messrs. Browne, Heaphy and Moore have also been constantly out: Messrs. Browne and Moore having hit first upon
the harbour, and the best part of the good district, although Mr Tuckett and Heaphy crossed it after a fatiguing journey of . . . . . 70 miles.
The Masters of the 'Whitby, Will-Watch, and Arrow have shewn great zeal in aiding our research, and much general interest in the success of the undertaking - they all agree about the fitness of the harbour, as far as the depth of water goes. You will observe by my diary that I have examined the gulf from Astrolabe roads to Croixille, and that I found
no harbour, except the one I have chosen, which had any communication with the Southern Country. Croixilles is as fine a harbour as Port Nicholson, but there are not ten acres of level land on its shores, nor any possible communication with the country. I fully anticipate procuring the whole quantity of land acquired, within a reasonable distance, but cannot afford exploring parties now from the Surveyors: and I should think it is a very good district for the Company to select a portion of the land awarded to them by the Government.
I have to request you will move his Excellency the Governor, to appoint a magistrate to this district, as we cannot expect to keep the peace without law: as strangers are beginning
to arrive. Two American runaways are already here. Our own people have behaved well hitherto, and have done a great deal of work. The boats have been continually away; indeed we could not have done without efficient boats and men; and the boats have turned out very much to Mr. Heyward's credit, in every respect.
You will be pleased to receive this letter as one written hastily upon the arrival of the schooner yesterday, rather than detain her for a more full account of our proceedings, however I presume that nothing of importance is omitted, and I hope to give a more detailed description of the place by the Arrow.
Should any vessel be bound here, she should run boldly down and communicate with the port, and a boat will be sent out if it should blow fresh from the N. W. She should lay the breeze out in Astrolabe Roads, which is as good an anchorage as need be. In running down to communicate, she should not go into less than 7 fms. until she receives a pilot.
I have the honour to be, Sir
Your obedient Servant,
Co. Agent for Nelson
Col. Wm Wakefield
Principal Agent, ,
I beg to enclose a continuation of my diary by which you will observe that I have made preparations for leaving this ship tomorrow and fixing permanently on shore. I was in hopes of having done so before, but there has been considerable delay in putting up the barracks, owing to many parts of it not being fitted; however one wing is now in a fair way of
being able to afford security and protection to the stores, etc. We shall have to live under canvas for some time.
I beg to enclose a hasty plan of the harbour and also the Coast line from Adele island to the head of this haven there has been hardly time, nor have we had sufficient boats
during the discharging of the ships to have completed the soundings so accurately as might be desired; as no stranger should attempt to pass the flats without a pilot. I trust it will be sufficient to shew its capabilities of shelter, convenience of anchorage, and facilities of discharging, and in the event of a ship being driven to run over the flats, it ought to be sufficient to take her in.
On the coast line you will find sketched in, journeys of the exploring parties, with some account of the country. I have learnt little or nothing since my last with respect to to the interior, as we have been all occupied in discharging the ships, setting up the barracks and getting temporary residences erected * I have no reason to change my opinion with respect to the harbour or the district, but on the contrary I feel daily more satisfied with the choice, and
convinced that it will turn out a valuable acquisition to the Company and all those interested in its settlement.
I send Mr. Heaphy in the Arrow, suggesting that he may be sent to England, either by way of -Panama or by Cape Horn in the brig. He has been very industrious whilst employed under my directions, and has contributed much to the full examination of this district. I have taken upon myself to make him a present of L50 for this special service which I hope you will approve of. Mr. Moore has fulfilled his engagement much to my satisfaction, and as he wished particularly to return to Port Nicholson on some private business, although with the intention of returning, I have paid him the sum agreed upon.
I have made presents to two more chiefs, residents of Pepin's island, Amanu & Etaro; and have promised a third, Kiouri, who is at present at Port Nicholson, of the same description as those given to the chiefs of the Motueka. At present we have only half a dozen natives here, and they go away tomorrow to plant their potatoes; They are very friendly and seem much pleased at our settling amongst them. They are very anxious to possess European clothes, which they are acquiring fast; and I should say that they would very soon adopt them. Their price for a good wattled house now is four blankets and a complete suit of clothes.
The Surveyors have been engaged on the Coast line and the harbour; the survey of the site of the town has commenced, and I do not see any reason for delay in its completion. There is nothing to do in the way of clearing, but a part of the site is hilly. At any rate, I am in hopes, by the time the town is ready for distribution, a good portion of the accommodation land will be surveyed, which will enable settlers to get to work at once on the country, instead of being led into trade by the temptation of great percentage, on a very small capital. I take it for granted that no distribution of land should take place before the arrival of a fair proportion of the original purchasers or their agents.
Should any delay take place in the distribution of of the land, I am in hopes that the settlers will not suffer so much, as they can commence with stock at once.
I have this day signed the certificates of the Whitby and Will-Watch. The Whitby I discharge at once but shall retain the Will-Watch until I hear from you and get some certain
means of communication with Wellington,
I am Sir
Your obedient Servant
Arthur 'Wakefield Agent for Nelson.
Colonel W. Wakefield,
19 Novr. 1841
As the Arrow was going out yesterday she ran upon the beach owing to the tide catching her on the lee bow & preventing her from wearing, it was a mere accident & occurred entirely
for want of a knowledge of the set of the tide,
Captain Geare will tell you that the circumstance has not altered his opinion of the harbour. She was hove off without damage & we have ballasted her afresh & she starts today.
We are all on shore & shaking down to our quarters, we commenced staking the barracks this morning.
23rd November, 1841.
My dear Father,
You will hardly expect that we should have fixed upon a site so soon, we have however been here three weeks, so in spite of rather an unusually long passage we have fixed upon the spot in about six months from leaving England. You will hear all the detail thro' the New Zealand prep. -- all I can say is that I have realised all my hopes and have found the most pleasing occupation I could have invented for myself. We have got the wing of one barrack up and now filled with the stores and provisions; the other is in progress for the use of the surveyors; we are all living in tents which are very comfortable except in windy weather, particularly mine, which is pitched upon a hill which overlooks both parts of the site of the town which will be necessarily divided owing to the nature of the land, the greater part of it will be in a very pretty valley, whereas the commercial part will be near the beach, which is separated from it by a range of steepish downs, parts of which only are available for building, but will admit of a connexion by means of two roads, one round the beach and the other over the downs. We have commenced cultivation in a small way. I have a quarter of an acre sown and peas, beans, turnips, cabbages, &c., already up, the peas are 3 or 4 inches high.We are rather in want of rain just now. We fear being in want of water and commenced boring at once; we are nearly 60 feet down without finding it. We have been in softish blue rock the last 10 feet.I am in hopes when we get thro' it we shall have water.It is rather strange to want water any where in N.Z. but it so happens on these downs, altho' there are two rivers within a mile and a half of them. The climate is delightful and everybody is much pleased with the country, all we want now is population and I am in hopes we shall have the town and some parts of the country sections surveyed by the time a reasonable body of settlers are out.I am anxiously waiting an answer from William to whom I have dispatched two vessels. I rather expect him over. We shall have a very compact set of Company's settlements between Wellington, Nelson, New Plymouth, and Wanganui, and all we want to unite them is steam. Charles Torlesse is doing very well and I hope will turn out a surveyor. He is a very active boy.
Yours ever affly.
I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No 2, by the Kate, as well as the articles sent by her, (as per bill of lading), which were delivered this day; the Kate having arrived outside the haven yesterday afternoon and entered it this morning.
Mr. Webster, the owner, has no longer the intention of going to Wanganui or I should have sent somebody over with him to examine that district according to your wishes. I also, think it is important that you should be informed to what extent coal may be procured there, or in its neighbourhood.
I shall discharge the Will Watch tomorrow as I do not see any further occasion for her.
I cannot well account for the non-arrival of the "Eliza" which vessel, I observe had on board the original of your letter No.1.
I have received information from Mr. Murphy the Police Magistrate at Wellington that His Excellency has been pleased to include my name in the commission of the peace lately issued.
I have nothing further to say since my last with respect to the settlement, except that we have not found water on what may be called the port part of the town. We are 65 feet below the surface.
The Surveyors are fairly at work, and will soon have the site of the town on paper; when we can decide on the mode of laying it out, and commence at once on the division, which will not take long. The Surveyors are working well as far as I can judge.
I do not send the copy of the journal, as nothing new has occurred; but will send it by the next opportunity.
The "Kate" rode a night in our roadstead outside the flats during which it blew as strong a breeze from the Northward as I have witnessed since we have been here. I do not mean to say that it is satisfactory as to the safety of a ship at that anchorage at all times; but it argues well, and makes me fancy it is as safe, at any rate, as Margate Roads.
I have the honour to be Sir,
Your Obedt,. Servant,
Agent for Nelson.
Col. W. Wakefield,
I have to say with respect to our progress except that everything is going on satisfactorily. The chief surveyor is on his mettle and is proceeding cordially, as he is getting attached
to the place apparently.
I could do nothing but gossip with Mr Webster about steam, when the mode of remuneration by way of bounty arrives from England; he may be communicated with, and I have no doubt that an individual, if he possess the means, and can give good security for the performance of his contract, is more likely to do well with steam than a joint stock company, altho I have always been of opinion that the owners of land should be the shareholders of the steamers between the Company's settlements because the enhancement of the price of land by their means would enable them to be satisfied with small profits & even make it their interest to continue them even at some loss.
Partridge is very much pleased with our place. Mr Webster says little, but considers the country & climate like that of the North, with respect to the harbour he only compares it with better ones to the Northward, but Port Nicholson as a harbour struck him.
I received every thing you sent correctly. I hardly know what to say about Molesworth's house, I do not recollect him sufficiently to judge, if one can not be had at a fair price perhaps I had better wait, I suppose we shall have some from Sidney shortly.
If you could induce anybody to send a team of bullocks and a plough over here with
seed potatoes they might sow 20 acres to great advantage on the land which is sure to be suburban & will not be ready for distribution until after the crop would be got in; it would teach the Maoris a lesson who are holding back for more population, they have got 50 tons of potatoes in reserve. There is good land quite ready for the plough.
I fear the Eliza has overdone it this time, Rolfe the man who had charge of her had too good an opinion of her sea worthiness, and I hear he was very deep. I suppose there were letters in her for me and others.
If you have not sent off the duplicate which I enjoined Heaphy to make of the plan of the Haven, would it not be wise to get it lithographed sent to Sidney etc. I hope you will have a good opportunity of sending our duplicates as I feel from the political excitement England that the fixture of the site will be required to prevent the 2nd colony from flagging.
BIOGRAPHIC SKETCHES. CAPTAIN ARTHUR WAKEFIELD. About ten months ago the British public were surprised and grieved at the news of a dreadful massacre of English colonists at New Zealand, by the natives of that country. Amongst the victims was Captain Arthur Wakefield, emigration agent at the Nelson settlement, whose memoirs we are now enabled to lay before our readers from a private and authentic source. Arthur Wakefield the son of an opulent yeoman in Essex, was born in the year 1800, and at the age of ten was selected by the enterprising Captain Beaver*, after his return from Africa, as one of his probationary midshipmen (then technically called "young gentlemen," but now naval cadets) in the frigate Nisus. At the Cape of Good Hope, the young naval aspirant had the misfortune to lose his patron, who died in consequence of the injuries his constitution sustained on the western shores of Africa. The late Sir Charles Schomberg succeeded to the command, and brought the ship home. How young Arthur Wakefield acquitted himself on the voyage, may be judged of from the following anecdote: On returning, his father solicited Captain Brenton (the friend and secretary of the Earl St Vincent) to appoint his son to the Spartan, which Brenton commanded, and, for the purpose of getting the appointment confirmed, all three travelled up to London. In the hall of the Admiralty stood Captain Schomberg. Mr Wakefield having detailed the arrangements which had been made, Schomberg turned round sharply to Brenton, and said, "You shall not have him. As long as I have a pendant flying, Arthur shall be one of my midshipmen." The consequence was, that he was retained on board the Nisus, under his old commander. Circumstances, however, afterwards obliged him to exchange into the Hebrus, in which vessel he served at the battle of Bladensberg with so much distinction, that he was approvingly named in the extraordinary gazette announcing the victory it not being usual to mention
*Captain Beaver was amongst the first who attempted to fix a colony on the western coast of Africa. He chose the Island of Buluma, and went out, fully equipped, with every requisite and seventy colonists. All, however, except Beaver and another, fell victims to the pestiferous climate to which so many succeeding adventurers have been sacrificed.
officers in the grade of midshipmen at all, unless their conduct had been unusually praiseworthy. He was also present at the siege of Algiers, doing the responsible duty of midshipman of the signals. , After this event, there being a general peace, Mr Arthur Wakefield went to France to acquire the French language, and to pursue other studies; but he was speedily recalled by the distinguished appointment of flag-midshipman to Sir George Campbell, who had become port-admiral of Portsmouth. He next served under Sir Thomas Hardy as his aide-de-camp in the Spanish colonies of South America. When at Valparaiso, he was promoted, and returned home as third lieutenant of the Superb. While on shore, he happened to attend a public dinner of the Merchant Seaman's Society, at which a minister of state spoke with undeserved praise of the build and efficiency of the mercantile navy. On returning, Wakefield told his father that "he had never heard such nonsense in his life", for the fiscal regulations by which the builders of trading vessels were tied down, rendered them, as a fleet, the worst craft in the world. His father recommended him to place his ideas on paper. Lieutenant Wakefield did as recommended, and the paper was read to the Earl St Vincent, at whose house, Rochets he was a constant visitor. The old admiral was struck by the force of the facts and reasonings, and advised its publication. The advice was taken, and the lieutenant's ideas were put forth in a pamphlet, the appearance of which is said to have originated those alterations in the specified build of merchant ships which have since so materially improved them. This was in 1825, and soon after, young Wakefield was appointed to the Blazer, destined once more for Spanish America. He had not long departed before his father happened to call on the Earl St Vincent. To his grief, he heard that his lordship was in all probability dying. Mr Wakefield was nevertheless announced to him, and his reply was singularly characteristic. The attendant was desired to advise the visitor to "let his son keep at sea, and live upon his pay!" These were amongst the last words which the aged veteran spoke. The Blazer returned to England, for the purpose of taking out those celebrated but unfortunate African travellers, Clapperton, Denham, and the son of Mungo Park, with their attendants, the brothers Lander. On arriving off the African coast, Lieutenant Wakefield left the Blazer to take the command of the Conflict sloop, in which he remained during five years, performing signal services in her, in the capture of slavers. The Conflict was paid off in February 1828. By this time, his father having retired, from Sussex to reside in France, Arthur Wakefield joined him, inspecting the most celebrated dockyards belonging to the country; but he was not long away from the service he so ardently loved. At the close of the same year he joined the Rose as senior lieutenant, and a short time later, was promoted to the rank of captain. We must, however, pass over the rest of his naval adventures as being interesting only to professional persons that we may arrive at his last unfortunate venture, the end of which deprived him of life, and joined his name with one of the most painful catastrophes which the modern history of colonisation affords. Some years ago Mr Edward Gibbon, brother to Captain, Wakefield, proposed a plan by which, with a judicious combination of land, capital, and labour, a colony might be established without any cost to the mother country. This plan was not only taken up by a company established for colonising New Zealand, but was patronised by the colonial department of the British Government. Already two important settlements (Wellington and Port Nicholson) had been made in New Zealand, under the direction of a governor and a regular staff of officials, sent out upon the old plan of colonising; but in the year 1841, arrangements were made by the New Zealand Company with the colonial office for an additional tract of land, on which was to be formed a third settlement, under the superintendence of Captain Arthur Wakefield. Accordingly, he sailed in the ship Whitby, with an efficient body of colonists, and arrived safely, in October, at the desired locality in New Zealand. Very formidable difficulties presented themselves the moment the party landed. A misunderstanding existed respecting the terms upon which the land had been granted, first, between the British government and the New Zealand Company; next, between the home authorities and the local government at Wellington; and thirdly, between the latter, the natives of the district, and the new comers! Amidst this complication of difficulties, however, Wakefield managed to establish the colony of Nelson, which, however, the local authorities refused to acknowledge otherwise than by sending a custom-house officer to collect taxes for its own support. Perseverance conquered; and although constantly involved in disputes with the natives, and squabbles with the British governor, Captain Wakefield, ably seconded by the settlers who, one and all, admired and esteemed him, pursued the even tenor of his colonising way. When the little town had been formed with hastily constructed and slender habitations, the editor of a colonial newspaper drew the following picture of his manners and exertions: "At early morning, he chatted with natives who gathered round his door, the result being generally a gift of a blanket, or payment of a promised bag of flour or sugar, or some old vestment. In his daily progress from the port to the town, he stopped at every other step, listening patiently to all sorts of unreasonable complaints and unreasonable requests, digging his stick in the ground, or taking a pinch of snuff, the only symptoms of emotion shown, now making some little job of work for this man on his own account, or putting down another's name for the company's employ, here advising with a newcomer as to the best employment of his capital; there anxious to learn from a country settler the state of his crops, and all the details of his progress: now disentangling with the newspaper editor some puzzling problem of colonisation, with its intricate, ever-vary- ing, yet mutually dependent elements; then interesting himself in some old woman's fresh litter of pigs, or cabbage, the pride of her heart: discussing with this man the run of a new boat; with that the practicability of a plan for working the flax plant: assisting every rational enterprise, dispelling every faint-hearted misgiving with money, where possible with countenance and kindness, where not; ever less anxious to lead than to suggest and assist: now at a public meeting speaking calmly, earnestly, rationally; now helping to organise a literary or agricultural society, or visiting or superintending a children's school: quietly superintending the gradual organisation of a new community, helping it forward when impeded, clearing the way for its self-development, rather than attempting to construct it on preconceived designs or systematised formulas: he was by nature cut out for the founder of a colony-for a leader of men." Captain Wakefield steadily pursued the line of conduct above-described, till, the setting out of an unfortunate surveying expedition to Wairau, a district on a river of the same name, near Cloudy Bay, about seventy miles from Nelson. The operations of the surveyors were opposed by the natives, headed by their chief, Rauparaha, in consequence of the undefined nature of the negotiations which had been made concerning the purchase of land, to which Captain Wakefield's colonists, laid claim on the one hand, whilst Rauparaha was unwilling to cede it on the other. The first hostility was shown by, the natives burning one of the surveying huts. On hearing this, Captain Wakefield, several gentlemen belonging to Nelson, the crown prosecutor, an interpreter, four constables, and twenty-two men, proceeded to Wairau to take Rauparaha into custody for the offence he had committed. They landed on Friday the 16th June 1843, and went five miles up the river, either marching or in boats, the storekeeper having served out muskets, bayonets, pistols, swords, and cutlasses. At night they slept in a wood; and having gone four miles further up the river on the 17th they found the native, or "Maories" posted on its left bank, and on the right bank of a deep unfordable rivulet, thirty feet wide, which flowed into the Wairau. There were eighty or ninety native men, forty of whom were armed with muskets, besides women and children. They occupied about a quarter of an acre of cleared ground. with a dense thicket behind them. The British placed themselves on the right bank of the rivulet, and were formed into two separate bodies under Captain England and Mr Howard, the men being ordered not to interfere until directed. At the request of the magistrate, the natives placed a canoe across the rivulet to serve for a bridge, and some of the gentlemen, the interpreter, and the constables, crossed over, and entered into a parley. Captain Wakefield,, and two of his companions, walked backwards and forwards for nearly half an hour with the natives, apparently in a friendly manner. Mr Thomson (the magistrate) then showed his warrant, directing the constable to execute it on Rauparaha, and instructing the interpreter to explain the meaning of it. Mr Thomson also stated that he was "the queen's representative;" that that (pointing to the warrant) was the queen's book; that Rauparaha must go on board the brig with the constable; that It was for burning Mr Cotterell's house, and had nothing to do with the land question. Rauparaha told them to all sit down and talk, and not make a fight. The warrant was presented to the chief two or three times and on each occasion about sixteen natives, who had been sitting, sprung upon their feet, and leveled their muskets at the Europeans. Mr Thomson then inquired of Rauparaha whether he would come or not; to which he replied he would not. The magistrate then said if he would not go he would make him, Rauparaha refusing, Mr Thomson, pointing to the Europeans, said, "There is the armed force, and they shall fire upon you all if you won't go." The discussion then became violent, Captain Wakefield placed a canoe across the stream for a bridge, and finding prompt measures necessary, gave the word, Englishmen, forward. A few of them had entered the canoe when a shot was flred, whether by accident or design is not clear, neither is it certain on which side, but there is reason to think it was on the side of the Europeans. Upon this the firing immediately became general on both sides, and Captain Wakefield was obliged to order the British to retreat up the hill, and form on the brow: The greater number, however, did not halt at all, but fled round the hill, and escaped. At each step in the ascent Captain Wakefield attempted to, rally the fugitives. But, although an irregular firing was kept up, the Europeans continued their retreat. Captain Wakefield, finding it impossible to rally the men, ordered those who remained to lay down their arms and surrender. A white handkerchief was held up, and the interpreter called to the Maories, "leave off enough" When signals of surrender had been made, one or two Maories also throw down their weapons, and advanced, with their arms stretched out in token of reconciliation. The chief a son-in-law, who had just discovered that his wife had been shot by a chance ball, came up, crying, "Rauparaha , remember your daughter." Upon this Captain Wakefield and his companions, though they had peacefully surrendered, were set upon and inhumanly slaughtered: When the news of this melancholy catastrophe reached the settlement, a party was sent back to inter the bodies. To them the chief behaved peacefully, and declared "that they (the natives) had no intention to fight; that it was the wrath of the Europeans that made them fight; that the Europeans had fired upon them, and one or two of their number had fallen before they began to flght; and that it was not until the woman was shot that they "began to seek for payment" (revenge). The rites of sepulture were performed, with the full concurrence of the natives, on the spot where the captain and his friends had fallen. Thus perished a brave officer and most persevering colonist at the comparatively early age of forty-three. His death must be attributed solely to the want of a common understanding between the local government and the parties whose agent he was. To permit a body of colonists to go to the antipodes, under the supposition that the tenure of land they are about to occupy has been effectually secured, when such is not the case, is from whatever cause it may arise, reprehensible in the highest degree. To such a loose and improper system many private fortunes, and at least one valuable life, have already been sacrificed, while the principle of colonisation has been seriously damaged. In this, as in other branches of colonial affairs, the public and the government seem to be at issue, every wish on the part of proposing emigrants to settle on the crown lands of the colonies being, to all appearance, unwarrantably thwarted by a power which looks with jealousy on such a movement, and which impedes, more than it facilitates, the relief of the labour market by emigration. The lamentable massacre of Captain Wakefield and his companions is unquestionably traceable to this cause, and ought to teach, if anything can that the time for a thorough revisal of the colonial emigration system has arrived.
Ref: Chambers Edinburgh Journal abt April 1844.
WAKEFIELD, ARTHUR (1799-1843) Leader of Nelson preliminary expedition; New Zealand Company resident agent Arthur Wakefield was born in Burnham Wick, Essex, in 1799, the third son of Edward and Susanna Wakefield. He was brought up by his grandmother, Priscilla Wakefield of Tottenham, London, a devout Quaker whose faith had a great influence on Wakefield's life. Educated at Haigh's School, Tottenham, and at the Grammar School of Bury St Edmund, Suffolk, he joined the Royal Navy on the frigate Nisus in May 1810. He saw service in North American waters, being mentioned in dispatches. In 1819 he became flag-midshipman to Sir Thomas Hardy on the Superb, accompanying him on a two-year diplomatic tour to South American and gaining fluency in Spanish. Promoted to Lieutenant in 1821, he served on diplomatic missions. By 1839 he was in command of the frigate Rhadamanthas. With the formation of the committee to establish the New Zealand Company's second colony, Wakefield retired from the navy early in 1841 and began organising the new settlement. He was appointed leader of the preliminary expedition, and three ships sailed from Gravesend on 27 April 1841. At Port Nicholson in September 1841 F.G. Moore persuaded Wakefield to examine Tasman Bay as a site for the settlement. On 6 October 1841 Wakefield called at Kapiti Island and interviewed Te Rauparaha and Hiko, who were in favour of the expedition's settling at the Bay, before sailing to Astrolabe. After preliminary explorations along the western side of the bay he directed F. G. Moore and a party to investigate the eastern shores, a search which revealed Nelson Haven. On 21 October 1841 Wakefield ordered the charting of the haven and its approaches. At a large gathering of Motueka Maori at Kaiteriteri, on 29 October 1841, he and others offered gifts which were accepted, and permission was granted for the settlement to go ahead. The Whitby anchored in the Haven on 5 November 1841 and work began on preparing for the arrival of the main group of immigrants. Wakefield became the New Zealand Company's resident agent in Nelson and leader of the settlement. By January 1842 he had realised that the locality did not have enough good land to meet the expectations of settlers. With the arrival of the immigrant ship Fifeshire on 1 February 1842, his administrative problems multiplied he lost some of his authority after the arrival on 6 March 1842 of H.A.Thompson the police Magistrate, who proved erratic and unstable. Wakefield visited Golden Bay in September to have a korero with the Takaka and Aorere Maori about arrangements for the surveying of the area. Relationships with the tangata whenua were jeopardised by Thompson's tactless handling of a dispute with local Maori over Motupipi coal. His uncontrollable temper gave Wakefield qualms of impending trouble, which he reported to his brother, Colonel William Wakefield. John Cotterell's discovery of open grassland in the Wairau Valley in December 1842 resulted in contracts to survey the land in March 1843, despite Wakefield having been warned by Te Rauparaha and Rangihaeata not to proceed. Ngati Toa disputed the inclusion of the Wairau in the land sold for settlement in 1839. By June 1843 the surveys were virtually completed, despite disruption by Ngati Toa who evicted some of the survey teams. This was done without violence or damage to equipment, but they destroyed anything made of natural materials and set fire to Cotterell's hut. A charge of arson was laid against Te Rauparaha and Rangihaeata in a warrant issued by the Bench of Magistrates, which included Captain Wakefield, in Nelson on 12 June 1843. He was in the group that sailed next day in the government brig Victoria for Cloudy Bay, to execute the warrant. Arthur Wakefield had misgivings about the venture, and was one of those who surrendered to Te Rauparaha at Tua Marina on 17 June 1843. His body was discovered by the Rev Samuel Ironside, with a piece of damper under his head and with his pistol across his throat. Arthur Wakefield lies in a common grave in the Tua Marina Cemetery.
Ref: Nelson Notables 1840-1940 by Max D Lash.
Quotes from "The Early Settlement of Nelson."
. . . . . as Barnicoat1 remarked, "this much is certain that our party were the first to attack, but no one can say which was the first to fire." On the other hand, the Maoris fired immediately on being attacked . . . . . For some minutes there was brisk firing with a few casualties on both sides . . . . . The white party on the Maori side of the stream hastily crossed back to rejoin their comrades. As they were all exposed here to Maori fire, while their enemy remained invisible in the bush, Wakefield ordered them to retire to the hill where they could form up. Some of the man ran up the hill ahead of the gentleman, while others ran away. when Rauparaha ordered his warriors across the creek in pursuit a general dispersion ensued . . . . . Wakefield then fell back to a second brow. Here seeing no hope of gathering his scattered party, he decided to stop the useless sacrifice of life by calling upon his followers to surrender . . . . . Capt Wakefield had surrendered to a group of about 20 Maoris handing over his pistol . . . . . For our knowledge of the fate of the leaders, we are indebted to George Brampton the only prisoner to escape . . . . . After surrendering the whites were escorted downhill until they were joined by Rauparaha and Rangihaeata. The Chiefs then sat down in a ring to discuss what they should do with their prisoners, some of whom were wounded. Rauparaha at first appeared willing to spare them, but Rangihaeata who hated all pakeha's, and was furious because his wife, Te Rongo, a daughter of Rauparaha had been shot in the affray demanded revenge. He shouted excitedly at Wakefield and then called loudly upon Te Rauparaha to remember his daughter. As this appeal for utu (revenge) for the death of a chieftainess was one no Maori could refuse, Rauparaha gave way . . . . . Brampton, seeing attention temporarily distracted from himself, slipped into the high fern and crept to a bush where he hid . . . . . The slaughter of unarmed prisoners produced a violent effect upon the Nelson settlement, not only because it was a direct violation of the European code of honour, but also because of what seemed the savage barbarity with which it was carried out. According to the Maori code however, Rangihaeata acted within his rights in thus avenging the death of his wife. It was not the custom to spare the lives of chiefs conquered in battle . . . . .
The loss of Capt Wakefield was felt keenly by all classes . . . . . His death said the Examiner2 left a void a hiatus in the settlement which to us, it appears vain to hope to see adequately supplied . . . . The life he had lived . . . . . had developed in him all that one most desired to see in a man occupying the post he did. It had made him in a few words, a man of the world, not in the mere ordinary sense, but in the larger and completer one which embodies the knowledge and practice of the right, the true, and the good is much as the knowledge of life and humanity . . . . . . His character was the very practical businesslike turn which everything took with him. There was no beating about the bush no circumlocutory display, but straightforward intelligible action in all his proceedings. His judgement, indeed, in all matters of practical life, was remarkably sound . . . . . He was humane, amiable, and kind to all alike, poor or rich, and always accessible to the humblest applicant. Everything he did was with that ease, quietness and gentleman like manner, so desirable in such a responsibility as he was entrusted with."3
. . . . . Of Arthur Wakefield's qualities of leadership there is no question. If he had a fault, it was that he was a little too fond of manipulating people, and a little too easily swayed by expediency. It was indeed the family failing. Curling Young, while conceding that no man could be better fitted for his situation, qualified his praise: "but I am not quite content with him; only I like him, without altogether trusting him. Honest he is, indeed and generous to a fault, there is no want of openness, and most persons would give him credit for ingenious simplicity, which is not exactly the thing; but when I say, I do not trust him, I mean that his thought of today is not his thought of tomorrow, and so his judgement fails, according to me, and then he squares it to meet expedients."
His one serious error of judgement was over the Wairau. Even there the outcome might not have been so disastrous but for the poor foolish Thompson, by temperament so unfitted for a judicial post.
Nelson A History of Early Settlement.
By Ruth M Allen, edited by J C Beaglehole.
Published 1965 for the Nelson City Council, by AH and AW Reed.
1. John Wallis Barnicote, Journal 22 July 1843. pt 2 pg 11.
2. Examiner 8 July 1843 p.278
3. Stephens (Wakefields nephew) to his mother: 27 July 1843 S.L. Vol. I, pp 149-50.
4. William Curling Young to his mother 17 July 1842. Y.L., p. 162.
VALLE, PHILIP (1841-1845) Surveyor; supervisor of Waimea East road gangs Philip Valle, a 37-year-old cabin passenger on the Mary Ann with his 29-year-old wife, Sarah, and their six children, landed at Nelson on 7 February 1842. A qualified surveyor . . . . . In May 1843 Captain Arthur Wakefield appointed Valle as superintendent of the NZ Company's road construction, at a yearly salary of 200 pounds plus forage. William Wakefield re-organised the system of road construction during his visit in August 1843 and the road gangs were consolidated into two large parties, in Waimea East and the Wai-iti Valley. Valle supervised the Waimea East gang,
PETITION TO PARLIAMENT. 1844.
To the Honourable the House of Commons, &c, &c, &c. The humble Petition of the undersigned Inhabitants of the settlement of Nel▀on, in the colony of New Zealand, Sheweth,
1. That it is with reluctance and regret your petitioners are compelled to protest and petition to your honourable house against the acts of his Excellency the Governor of this colony, in reference to the massacre that was committed in this settlement on the 17th of June last, when twenty-two of your petitioners fellow settlers, including in their number a commander in her royal navy, a retired captain hi her Majesty's army, the Police Magistrate and Judge of the County Court of the district of Nelson and Protector of Aborigines, the Crown Prosecutor, and the chief constable for the said district, were savagely murdered by certain aborigines of these islands, in resistance of the exercise of her Majesty's lawful authority.
2. That your petitioners have read, with surprise and sorrow, the official published account of his Excellency's meeting with certain native chiefs on the 12th of February last, which terminated in the announcement of his decision not to avenge the deaths of your petitioners fellow countrymen; and do solemnly protest against this course, which they humbly conceive to be an arbitrary and unconstitutional assumption by his Excellency of the power and authority of the legally instituted tribunals of ju▀tice.
3. That your petitioners have learned from the said official account that on Monday the 12th day of February in the present year his Excellency landed at Waikanai, a place situated on the south-west coast of New Ulster, commonly called the North Island, accompanied by certain officers of his Government, and by Captain Sir Everard Home, Bart., and other officers of her Majesty's ship North Star, and was there received by several hundred natives, including certain men charged with committing the said massacre. That his Excellency, in a speech which he addressed to the said natives, stated, among other things, That he had come there to hear their own account of the said massacre, and to compare the same with the published statements and evidence of the Europeans; that, when he had first heard of the death of the Englishmen who had fallen, he had been very angry, and had thought of hastening here with many ships of war, many soldiers, and several fire-moved ships; that, had he done so, their warriors would have been killed, their canoes taken and burnt, and their houses and villages destroyed: but that he had considered the English, even by their own account, to have been very much to blame, and had seen how much the natives had been provoked that he had therefore put away his anger, and come to them peaceably to hear their story.
4. That your petitioners have further learned from the said official account that the principal chief present, named Rauparaha (who headed party of natives engaged in the said massacre, led them to the spot where it was committed, and himself assisted in it, and who claimed the land, a dispute in respect of which was the origin of the legal proceedings which terminated in the said massacre), addressed his Excellency with a statement of the events connected therewith: and that, at the conclusion of the said chiefs recital, and after one half-hour's deliberation, without cross-examining him, or examining any other person, his Excellency proceeded to inform the assembled natives that, having heard and reflected upon the accounts of the natives as well as of the white men, he had decided that it was the misconduct of the English which had brought on the fight and hurried the natives into the crime of murdering unarmed men, who had surrendered and that he would therefore not avenge their deaths.
5. That the account of the conflict and massacre which was given by the said chief Rauparaha to his Excellency the Governor contained statements at variance with a mass of evidence which had been lawfully taken on oath and published and that, unsupported as it was by the evidence of any other native at the time, your petitioners humbly conceive it could not possibly enable his Excellency to arrive, in one half-hour's deliberation, at an impartial and unbiased judgment as to the degree of guilt attaching to any parties, even had he been legally competent to pass such judgment.
6. That your petitioners desire to put altogether aside the consideration of the question whether or not the body of Englishmen who proceeded to the Wairau under the authority of the Police Magistrate and other magistrates of the territory, for the apprehension of certain natives charged with breaking the laws, acted lawfully because up to this time the Commissioner appointed by her Majesty to investigate the titles to land in this colony has not commenced any inquiry as to whether or not those aborigines had really sold the land in respect of which the dispute originated which ended in the massacre, and because until he shall make his decision on that point no just conclusion can be arrived at. Your petitioners therefore refrain from questioning here the accuracy of the statement made by his Excellency, that the said body of Englishmen were wrong from the first, and that the said natives had committed
no crime for which they could be apprehended. But, while your petitioners admit, as a matter of course, his Excellency's right to the same free exercise of individual opinion which they claim for themselves, they do protest against such private opinions being publicly avowed, as having all the force of law, and superseding altogether any investigation by, and being put in place of the decision of, a court of law.
7. That, in certain instructions addressed by her Majesty's late Secretary of State for the Colonies (Lord John Russell) to the late Governor Hobson, dated the 9th of December, 1840, which accompanied the transmission of the charter of the colony, and which were intended to guide the official conduct of the Governor, the said Secretary of State declared that even the customs of the aborigines, though merely absurd and impolitic and not directly injurious, would, unless express legislative provision were made to the contrary, subject the aborigines to the penalties of English law where it might be contravened by such customs and he directed that in the case of greater crimes committed by the natives, violating the eternal and universal 'laws of morality (such as your petitioners conceive murder to be), no compromise should be made, by whatever pretext of religious or superstitious opinion such crimes might have been sanctioned in the previous practice of the natives.
8. That his Excellency Captain Fitz▀oy, apparently disregarding the plain tenour of the said instructions of the late Secretary of State, has publicly announced to many of your petitioners, in this settlement, that though the natives are British subjects and entitled to all the consideration and protection of the subjects of Great Britain, they are not amenable in every respect to the laws of England;" but that neither his Excellency nor the Legislature of the colony have specified any particular in which the natives are not amenable to English law; whilst in the official account of the meeting at Waikanai before referred to, his Excellency is stated to have informed the natives that their ignorance of English law absolved them from the consequences of their acts.
9. That on the same occasion as he declared that the natives are not amenable to British law, as before mentioned, and previous to his proceeding to Waikanai aforesaid, his Excellency (in pursuance of that doctrine, as your petitioners presume) removed from the commission of the peace several magistrates resident in this settlement, principally, as he stated at the time, on account of their having signed a warrant for the apprehension of the said two principal chiefs, when charged with the commission of the said murders.
10. That your petitioners are unwillingly led to the conviction, by the aforesaid circumstances, that, previous to the said meeting between his Excellency and the natives at Waikanai as. aforesaid, his Excellency's decision was made in his own mind not to institute any judicial inquiry for the purpose of lawfully ascertaining and bringing to punishment the parties guilty of the said murders.
11. That your petitioners, therefore, cannot regard his Excellency's said proceedings at Waikanai in the light of a solemn and impartial investigation by a tribunal competent to investigate, nor his decision as a just and final judgment by a tribunal competent to decide but, on the contrary, they consider the whole as a mere conversation between Captain Fitz▀oy and a certain native chief, which, in its commencement and progress, had none of the forms, and in its termination none of the conclusive weight, of a judicial inquiry.
12. That on a recent occasion, to wit, in the month of August last, the deputation appointed to proceed to Auckland on behalf of the inhabitants of this settlement, to lay before his Excellency the Officer then administering the Government of the colony the evidence relating to the said massacre, and to ascertain the intentions of the Government in reference thereto, received a written assurance from his Excellency that the case would not be prejudged, that impartial justice should be done, and that the penalties of the law should certainly overtake those whom its verdicts should prove guilty."
13. That, in the humble opinion of your petitioners, the decision of his Excellency the Governor of this colony has prejudged the case; impartial justice has not been done; and the penalties of the law have not overtaken the guilty.
14. That your petitioners do solemnly and sincerely disclaim any malignant or unchristian feelings of revenge against any of the natives, .and earnestly repel the charge of having brought on, by their own ill treatment of the aborigines generally, the said lamentable calamity at the Wairau, or of having continued such ill treatment to the present time.
15. That your petitioners desire to be understood as abstaining from comment on any other act of his Excellency, except the course pursued by him with relation to the said massacre. His government of the colony has been, too brief to allow of a full development of his measures, and your petitioners do not wish to express any opinion upon them. They appeal to your honourable house solely on the said question of the massacre.
16. Your petitioners therefore pray that your honourable house will be pleased to take such steps as in your wisdom may seem right, in order that her Majesty may be moved to express her disapprobation of the conduct pursued by his Excellency the Governor of this colony in declining to bring before the constitutional tribunals of the law the parties charged with the massacre of so many of her Majesty's faithful subjects, and to cause such other measures to be adopted as may for the future effectually secure your petitioners, and all others her Majesty's loyal subjects resident in the colony of New Zealand, against any similar licentious interference with the due course of justice, and thereby establish the authority of British law as supreme and inflexible, alike over the ruler and the ruled, over the native and the European, throughout these islands. And your petitioners will ever pray, &c.
William Fox, barrister, Constantine A. Dillon, George Duppa, Alfred Domett, barrister, James Stewart Tyler, John Saxton, Richard K. Newcome, W. Budge, surveyor, Francis Jollie, A. McDonald, banker, F. Dillon Bett, W. O. Cautley, Charles Elliott printer, A. Perry merchant, J. T. Bramwell, storekeeper, John Kerr, farmer, H. Redwood, farmer, H. Redwood, jun., farmer, William Jones, cowkeeper, James Plumridge, gardener, Samuel Newport, labourer, Alfred Saunders, miller, Edward Alexander, labourer, John Poynter, solicitor, J. Greaves, solicitor, W. P. Hippisley, farmer, John Henry Cooper, surgeon, D. Monro, J. P. James Elliott, printer, Duncan Mclntosh, printer, George F. Bush, surgeon, James Hyde, apothecary, K. D. Sweet, accountant, Alexander Hart, clerk, Alexander Kerr, clerk, Thomas Marsden, watchmaker, John Horn, bricklayer, George Morley, carpenter, Willam Seymour, carpenter, William Farehall, labourer, Richard Mills, innkeeper, Charles James Pelham, brewer, William Sinclair, mariner, Poalo Portello, brewer David Calnan, carpenter, Haynes, carpenter, Joseph Medhurst, carpenter, John Palmer, storekeeper, William Dale, storekeeper, C. Chapman, gentleman, Richard Lockwood, labourer, William Sanger, farmer, Frank Moline, surveyor, J. C. Boys, surveyor, William McMorris, George Greathead, smith, J. P. Robinson, turner, Thomas Rowling, labourer, Richard Ching, cowkeeper, Hugh Martin, gentleman, Richard Wains, yeoman, Jacob Schiel, cooper, Joseph Morgan, engineer, Benjamin Morgan, labourer, George Morgan, labourer, Edward Green, tailor, Thomas Fawcett, druggist, William Stallard, painter, Henry Williams, shoemaker, W. Johnson, innkeeper, Joseph White, A. Malcolm, tanner, James King, seaman, John Anderson, innkeeper, R. D. MacIsaac, turner,, James Anderson, grazier, Daniel Miehardson, plasterer, William White, carpenter Samuel Alder, painter, Basil Connell, carpenter, Charles Lucas, shoemaker, W. Wells, farmer, D. Moore, storekeeper, John Yates, carpenter, Hugh Young, carpenter, John Humphrey, wheelwright,
William Jennings, baker, William Rayner, baker, Samuel Stephens, Charles Empson, merchant, Robert Rosa, baker, A. Rankin, baker, John Smith, carpenter, Henry Purnell, carpenter, George Hooper, brewer, John Nisbet, smith, J. Fisher, surgeon, W. Fassett, brickmaker, J. Trass, labourer,, Joseph Hoare, merchant, Alexander McKay, innkeeper, Thomas Dillon, butcher, Isaac Coates, Frederick T. Berry carpenter, John Nelson, sawyer, Robert Roots, labourer, C. Young, storekeeper, John McArtney, tinsmith, John McArtney, jun., tinsmith, Richard Williams, woodcutter, W. Kelly, labourer, T. K. Warburton, innkeeper, James Wilson, schoolmaster, J. Collins, brickmaker, T. J. Ferrers, schoolmaster, Joshu Sigley, carter, Henry Hargreaves, carpenter, F. Reitz, carpenter, Thomas Nock, bricklayer, William Flower, sawyer, Reuben Bird, joiner, Joseph Bungate, labourer, Jackson Bowes, carpenter, Charles Henry Cox, carpenter, Frederick Witherby, clerk, Stafford Alexander Macshane, surgeon, Thomas McHugh, clerk, George Edwards, boatbuilder, William Wright, innkeeper, John Johnson, Robert Phelps, mariner, G.Ogilvie, William McGhie, William Harvey, John Goodman, Thomas Magarey, miller James Magarey, miller William M'Kenrie Colin Campbell, mariner R. V. Phelps, gentleman Robert Barret, labourer, Henry Flower, carpenter, Charles Astler, William Nesbit, Thomas White, millwright, J. R. Gordon, Adam Jackson, labourer, John Reese, clerk, T. Mayo, ironmonger, Abraham Veller, boatman, James McKenzie, boatman, Thomas Watson, boatman, Samuel Woolf, farmer, James Hagan, shoemaker, Robert Lucas, boatman, Thomas Taylor, seaman, Thomas Berry, storekeeper, William Gardner, rope maker, Edward Laney, baker, John Burns, joiner John Ferms, farmer John Wilson, bricklayer, James Spain, labourer, W Hey, W. Carder, Thomas Martin, W. Harkness, merchant, Alexander McKune, smith, Samual Parkinson, surveyor, William Ford, seaman, Alfred Fayettechild,
Thomas Farrell, William Taylor, boatman, John Miller, boatman, A. R. Wetherell, gentleman, E. Wetherell, gentleman, Alexander Bankin, baker, Henry Wilson, Carl Hellmann, Peter Leonard, John Brown, mariner, William Gregson, William John Herrick, sawyer, Maurice W. O'Burke, gent, John Kidson, labourer John McDonald, labourer, Henry Brown, carter, Joseph Newport, labourer, Aldons Arnold, surveyor, Edmond Stedman, farmer, Andrew Paterson, joiner, George McDonald, shoemaker, Henry Turner, sawyer, John Arnold, cabinetmaker, Thomas Blanchett, shoemaker, John Gibson, maltster, T. Musgrave, surveyor Jacob Batey, carpenter, Thomas Sullivan, builder, Thomas Duffey, surveyor, P. Graham, merchant, Anthony Rowe, farmer, George Holland, yeoman, G. W. Schroder, merchant, David Smith, farmer, John Armstrong, carter, Michael Tully, gardener, Edmund Perrin, brickmaker, William Bate Salt, carter, William Murray, innkeeper, T. Tidd, India-rubber maker, James Perrin, brickmaker, W. McGowan, labourer, John Wolken, slater, Robert Carter, innkeeper, Edward Grooby, labourer, Charles Timms, brickmaker, John Oldaway, labour, David Norgate, labourer, H. B. Ellerm, W. Sharp, farmer, Henry Cooke, farmer, Samuel Wells, labourer, Francis Grooby, labourer, George Blick, labourer, John Sheat, sawyer, Thomas Hopton, sawyer Jonathan Robinson, saddler, William Bishop, druggist David Goodsall, carpenter, John Watts, engineer, John Clark, gardener, Thomas Goodman, labourer William Parsons, labourer, G. Lightband, leather-dresser , William Bagnall, carpenter, Joseph Taylor, groom, James Hammond, brickmaker, C. Harrold, John Brown, sawyer, W. Brown, labourer, George Goldsack, blacksmith, Alfred Hill, printer, Adin Cockroft, butcher James Howbotham, farmer, George Tarr, butcher Richard Power, stonemason Henry Birchmore, bricklayer Bamuel Goddard, boatman Hiram Dane, shoemaker John Ponsonby, plasterer James Ponsonby, labourer Walter Barber, sawyer, Robert Jeffery Durant, Ishmael Clarke, well-sinker, T. Scott, Francis McDonald, Edward Jones, tailor, U. Batchelor, hairdresser, Charles White, James Knapp, George Lyne, painter, Henry P. Spershot, butcher, W. Harvey, sawyer, James Middleton, blacksmith, Robert Sharp, labourer, W. Moore, teacher, John Crocker, labourer, James Harper, shoemaker, Z. Harper, shoemaker, John Curry, labourer, Robert Palmer, bricklayer William Fisher, labourer, William Biggs, carter, Isaac Wilson, smith, T. Renwick, M.D., William Small, carpenter, William Williams, labourer, W. Thompson, sailor, Robert Hunter, sawyer, Thomas Smith, maltster, Joseph Brogden, brewer, Henry James, cooper, Richard Lloyd, bootmaker, Richard Sutcliffe, shoemaker, George Binns, clerk, James Murphy, boatman, John P. Healy, shopman, Thomas Bright, carpenter, H. C. Daniel, accountant, John George Fyfe, clerk, Robert Gordon, mariner, William Gulley, mariner William Cockburn, William Akroyd, boatman, James T. Smith, clerk, A. S. Rutter, stockman, N Robert B. Gee, merchant, George Kinsett, labourer, John Nixon, labourer, James Smith, baker William Barnett, shoemaker, William Jones, carpenter, Robert Newth, brickmaker, Isaac Parfit, brickmaker, Richard Pennels, brickmaker James Newport, brickmaker, Alexander McGee, shoemaker, Charles McGee, shoemaker, Henry McGee, shoemaker Thomas Gaukroger, carpenter, John McDonald, dairyman, William Kew, sawyer, William Cate, labourer, William McDonald, labourer James Winter, labourer, T. Bartlett, labourer, Daniel Eyeles, labourer, William Cate, junior, labourer, John William Sigley, carter, John Sigly, carter, Joseph Kothwell, farmer, Joseph Kimmer, farmer, George Sutton, farmer, Isaac Gibbs, farmer, William Carter, painter, John Taylor, gardener, Benjamin Crisp, carter, William Telford, sawyer, John Ladd, plasterer, Benry Lloyd, clerk, F. A. Lloyd, clerk, Richard Croak, labourer, J. H. F. Spanhake, Thomas Eden, shoemaker, John Lister, labourer, Anthony Roper, whitesmith, Samuel Stafford Styles, carter, Robert Boddington, labourer, George Harwood, shoemaker, Thomas Webster, carpenter, John Edwards, carpenter, Henry Fevan, labourer, Robert Franklin, baker William Leighton, builder David Hammand, weaver James Robinson, carpenter William Chant, labourer Enoch Nicholl, stonemason John Butterfield, labourer Thomas Bryant, labourer, James Kallor, carpenter, Samuel Higgs, carpenter, Enoch Black, weaver, Thomas Nicholls, Arthur Martin, surgeon, J. Newport, jun., labourer, David Livingston, joiner, William Rennets, labourer, James Gibbs, labourer, Henry Randall, labourer, John Paton, gardener, A. Sparks, tin plate worker, John Egerton, gardener, Charles Mathews, labourer, W. Maher, labourer, Thomas Wales, John Maher, labourer, John Noden, labourer, George Bampton, Daniel Mathews, labourer, William Neale, labourer, John Gay, labourer, Henry Wray, stockman, James Hagin, labourer James Hollis, sawyer Whitbread Field, sawyer, T. C. Karsten, carpenter, Charles A. Owen, gentleman, Charles Harley, innkeeper, John Brewerton, shoemaker, James Craig, farmer, William Field, sawyer, Peter Higgins, labourer, Alfred G. Betts, seaman, George Moulder, sawyer, Thomas Spellor, mariner, William Brown, mariner, Laury Jasper, mariner, Charles Stark, sawyer, William Cullen, yeoman, E. Coleman, cabinetmaker, Charles Clarke, surveyor, J. Tutty, baker, R. Warner, blacksmith, William Gill, gardener, Thomas George, labourer, Henry Coombs, sawyer, H. T. Hickton, baker, A. L. G. Campbell, gentleman, Richard Tutbury, labourer, John Winderbanks, labourer, James Graham, bookbinder, John Macintosh, cordwainer, James Cook, labourer, William Freeth, labourer, John Gordon, boatman Alexander Painter, blacksmith, William Mickle, turner, Robert MacNabb, labourer, Edward MacNabb, labourer, Thomas Towers, labourer, James Rose, labourer, Samuel Mercer, labourer, William Askew, wheelwright, William Douglas, blacksmith, Thomas Poole, painter, Thomas Locke, sawyer, David Lindsay, gardener, John Fowler, farmer, Edwin fowler, butcher, Henry Fowler, labourer, John F. Ballard, storekeeper Bernard McMahon, labourer, Joseph Duncan, stonemason David Drummond, labourer, Thomas Eppa, gardener William Dent, farmer, William Bice, carpenter, William Pratt, labourer, William Shepherd, carpenter, George Smith, miller, John G. Saunders, labourer, George Thompson, blacksmith, A. McLean, blacksmith, Robert Taylor, millwright, Peter Hansen, carpenter, George Rutherford, carpenter, William Williams, sawyer, John Brougham, labourer, Job Flowers, labourer, Richard Maund, labourer, James Bradley, labourer, C. Murphy, labourer, Charles Walker, labourer, T. Atkins, labourer, John Gillott, labourer, John Cawte, wheelwright, Richard Tannant, labourer, Thomas Wilkins, labourer, John Waterhouse, Thomas Waterbouse, John McDonald, Thomas N. Trower, farmer, Joseph Newport, labourer, Thomas Sidebotham, cooper, Robert Murray, labourer, Garner Hunter, labourer, W. Hughes, labourer, Benjamin Powell, labourer, Thomas Blick, labourer William Brown, labourer, Thomas Hannam, labourer, Thomas Wells, labourer, F. Grooby, jun., labourer, George Grooby, labourer, W. Walsh, bootmaker, Thomas Hill, butcher, Daniel Sullivan, bricklayer, James Stirling, farmer, George McRae, farmer, Horton Upjohn, gentleman, Thomas Feary, farm servant, Thomas Price, farmer, Edward Baigent, sawyer, John Prior, carpenter, Robert Crawford, farmer, William Jessop, bricklayer, James Barton, gardener, John Batt, farmer, Edward Penney, whitesmith, Samuel Badman, labourer, T. Tunnicliff, labourer, Chas. Gaukrodger, labourer, James Harford, labourer, Thomas Lines, labourer, Benjamin Lines, labourer, John Mears labourer, James Wadsworth, labourer, John Young, blacksmith, William Mean, farmer, Joshua Hoult, bricklayer, J. Poppleton Horn, joiner, John Griffith, sweep, Samuel Crawford, labourer, David Noz, labourer, William Palmer, labourer, David Clark, sawyer, John Floss, labourer, J, Wilkinson, storekeeper, William McRae, shepherd, John Kate, servant, W. Hudreth, farmer, Edward Noon, labourer, Andrew Croudace, labourer, John Scott Macdonald, John Carter, labourer, John Thorn, labourer, Benjamin Parses, sawyer, George Taylor, clerk, John Wade, merchant, C. O. Torlesse, surveyor, William Brown, Elisha Round, blacksmith, William Hodgson, farmer,
W. Dickinson, gent, William Bushnell, carpenter, William Satherley, labourer, John Staples, labourer, David White, labourer, Henry Lunn, labourer, William Heaphy, labourer, Robert Ailing, shipwright, William Sinclair, William Marsh, labourer, Thomas Hovenden, labourer, J. R. Carter, gardener, James Everis, Charles Coster, labourer, William Black, carpenter, John Avery, farmer, William Hammond, labourer, W. Hammond, jun., labourer, Charles Vincent, shoemaker, John Harkness, farmer, Thomas Gifford, labourer, Isaac Gifford, labourer, James Gifford, labourer, George Gifford, labourer, James Geddell, labourer, John Chamberlayn, labourer, James Clark, labourer, Michael Shannon, labourer, Mark Newth, labourer, Thomas Maddock, labourer, John Mortimer, labourer, Joseph Herbert, labourer, Stephen Sharp, labourer, Samuel Tilly, labourer, Thomas Gardner, labourer, John Livingston, labourer, Charles Henry Ford, labourer, Michael Reardon, labourer, James Bunget, labourer, Jacob Gifford, labourer, Charles Best, labourer, Samuel Stone, labourer, Thomas Rea, labourer, Emanuel Dew, labourer, Charles Ford, labourer, George Smith, labourer Joseph Taylor, labourer, James Haycock, labourer, Thomas Haycock, labourer, Sydney Higgins, labourer, Thomas Jackson, labourer, Thomas Butler, labourer, William Andrews, bricklayer, Charles Andrews, bricklayer, Thomas Andrews, bricklayer, William Atkinson, labourer, William Robinson, labourer, David McKinsey, labourer, James Written, labourer, William Winter, labourer, Francis Blincoe, labourer, George Oxley, labourer, Emery Hounsell, labourer, Samuel Jeffrees, labourer, John Parsons, labourer, Edward Cresswell, labourer, James Spanton, labourer, W. Wilkie, labourer, Thomas Appgood, labourer, W. Jeffries, labourer, Thomas Coleman, labourer, James Coleman, labourer, Thomas Coleman, labourer, Thomas Wagstaff, labourer, William Ricketts, labourer, Francis Rush, James Baggarley, painter, Edward Allen, Henry Garnett, Thomas Newman, W.Wigsell.
Ref: Papers Past Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, Volume III, Issue 119, 15 June 1844, Page 59
Family members who signed this petition in bold.
1. Arthur Wakefield: re Native Land Reserves, 15 Mar 1842.