John FORTESCUE [14702]
(Abt 1695-1757)
Theodosia BRAUNE [14703]
Francis FORTESCUE of Cookhill [14678]
(-Cir 1775)
Frances THREHEARNE [14701]
(Cir 1745-1822)

Rev Francis Fortescue KNOTTESFORD [7076]


Family Links

Maria DOWNING [7075]

Rev Francis Fortescue KNOTTESFORD [7076]

  • Born: 4 Apr 1772, Edmonton SSX
  • Marriage: Maria DOWNING [7075] in 1805
  • Died: 31 May 1859, Alveston Manor House WAR at age 87
  • Buried: 8 Jun 1859, Billesley WAR

bullet  General Notes:

Knottesford, Francis Fortescue, s. Francis Fortescue, of Edmonton, Middlesex, arm. Queens Coll., matric. 16 March, 1790, aged 17; B.A. 1793; M.A. 1798 of Alveston, co. Warwick, assumed the additional name of Knottesford, rector of Billesley, co. Warwick, 1823, until his death 31 May, 1859. See Fosters Peerage, B. Clermont.
Oxford University Alumni, 1500-1886

Francis Fortescue Knottesford Esquire
Date: 31 Aug 1805
Manor: Alveston
Record Type: Gamekeepers´ Deputation to Joseph Walker of Bridgetown 29 Sep 1798.
Warwickshire, Occupational and Quarter Session Records, 1662-1866
This matter was regularly before the Quarter Sessions at that time.

C 1786
I am now 14 years of age, & am just entering into the world (for I call it so). I am going to Eton, which is a little world, to me especially, having always lived at home, & never having been from my parents for any time together, & I intend there to make a journal, that I may when an old man, & I hope I shall view it with the pleasure of seeing that when I was young, I went on in the right way. And I will, first, give a little sketch of my own life hitherto, as well as I can remember.
I was born April 4th, 1772, & from that period to two years I remember nothing, but at the age of 2 years & an half I read Milton etc.[?] to the astonishment of many who heard me, & I could spell with ivory letters, before I could speak, & when about 3 years old I was invited to Mr Steers together with my Mama & Grandmamma to dinner, to read to the gentlemen, among whom was the Chamberlain, Mr Hopkins, Dr Bristol [?] a clergyman, & many more, to whom I read, Milton etc.; they gave me also letters of different hands to read, which I did with the utmost facility, & had I continued to have gone on so I should have been a wonder, but such talents in youth often go off, & sometimes children, which appear to be quite stupid at that time, turn out brighter than those which are so remarkable at so young an age.
My brother was born June 6 1774, & was so unfortunate as to be choaked [sic] at 7 months which happened thus. While I had the small-pox my brother was put out to nurse to a woman at Stamford Hill. One day Mama sent our boy with a cake to my brother, & a little while after he had given him the cake, the woman went out, & left him to the care of a girl, about 12 years of age, who (I suppose) went out to play, & left the child alone with the cake, with which he was choaked in the cradle. My Pater died about this time of the spotted fever, he heard of my brother's death 3 days before his own.
On my birthday at 5 years old I was very busy putting away my carts, . . . . . etc. & all my playthings, upon which Mama asked me what I was about. I told her I was putting away all my childish things. From this time I began to read to Mama ev'ry evening from tea to supper. Mr Forster came ev'ry day to teach Mama French & me everything, Mama taught me Latin 'till I went to Mr Forster's which was not 'till I was 6 years old. This year 1777 [1779?] Mama took a journey to the north with Mr & Mrs Watter, Mr Murthwaite etc. & went 1600 miles in 3 months, during which time my Grandmamma & I got up ev'ry morning at 7 o'clock & went to Mr Pugman's [?] to drink a glass of new milk. We went frequently to Mrs Cotton who was a very good neighbour to us . . . . . , & while Mama was gone Mungo was born who is now one of the sweetest dogs in England.
The year after I went with my Mama into Warwickshire to Bridgetown, where my Godfather Mr Knottesford lived. It is in a delightful County, & opposite the place where the Jubilee is kept. The River Avon runs at the bottom of the garden, navigable, & there is a bridge of 19 arches over it which goes to Stratford where is a market, & upon the whole is a very pretty town. We staid [sic] with my Papa Knottesford (as I always called him) 2 months where we spent our time very agreeably. We rid out on horse back ev'ry day, I always used to ride before Samuel, Papa Knottesford's man.
When we came home I went to School at Mr Forster's where I was a great favourite with Mr Coar [?]; he used always to say, there's my good boy; & to tell ev'ryone what a clever boy I was & would send for me to show them what I could do. One day he had some gentlemen with him, he sent for me to repeat some verses to them (for I used to say a great many things at that time) to show them how clever I was, & he desired me, to speak the prologue to Cato, & I unfortunately could not, but I came home & look'd it over as soon as possible & went to him & told him I had learned it perfectly but the gentlemen were gone, which was a sad disappointment to me. Dr Green, Bishop of Lincoln was very fond of me when a little boy, & gave me a book.
He had a house in Tottenham & used often to come & drink tea with us, he came one Sunday afternoon, & desired me to speak the prologue, from which I excused myself saying it was Sunday, but he said that might be spoke on all days, & then I spoke it with great approbation.
But to return to Mr C. I went on with great delight to my Master, but one Saturday (an unfortunate one for me) I behaved ill, laugh'd while I was saying my lesson, & was very rude, & he never forgot it, for after that he never lik'd me equally [?]. A little while after I took home with me a little note. I did not know what it was, but when Mama open'd it, it contained this: I am sorry to tell thee that thy son has been very idle today. & indeed! I had, & I was very idle for a great while & sometimes I used to try to gain his favour but found it impossible & I have many times walk'd up & down our hall & cry'd for an hour together, when I have try'd to gain his favour, but never could accomplish it & then I despaired [?].
I met with a very agreeable boy at that school one William Fell [?] with whom now I keep a correspondence & he is a very clever lad, & a great antiquarian, he has published several things in the Gentleman's Magazine. Mama took a liking to him, & he used often to drink tea with us, he staid then [there?] for near 3 . . . . . years & about one month after he came to Ulverstone [Alverstone?] where he lived he wrote a very kind letter to me. I have kept a correspondence with him ever since.
On the 19th of May 1781 my papa Knottesford died, & shew'd me great kindness, for which I ought always to be very grateful. He left me his Estate, & I am to change my name when of age - He used always to come to London in the spring, consequently always dined with us one day. He was with us a fortnight before he died, & was then so much pleased with me, that he sent for a lawyer to alter his Will more in Mama's & my favour, but he put it off, & my Papa Knottesford died before he came, but I ought always to be thankful for the kindness he has shown me & his intention, for that was the same tho' not put in practice thro' the neglect of the lawyer.
The year after was a very famous year with us for our robbery happened in it, which was as extraordinary a one I believe as ever was. It was on Thursday the 8th of August 1782, at 4.0 p.m. in the afternoon. We went to dine at Mrs Cotton's, which was but 4 doors from us, we did not dine till 5. After dinner, about ¼ of an hour, I was sitting in Mama's lap very bad with the tooth-ache, & Jonathan who courted Charlotte came in (looking very pale) & said something very bad was the matter at Mrs Fortescue's; none of us could think what it was. All of us were there, never could think of a robbery at that time of day, in the middle of summer, but however, Mama, Grandmamma & I set out to go home, when I got as far as the bridge and saw so many people . . . . .

Here the manuscript breaks off, in the middle of a page - it would appear that Francis never finished writing the document.
This manuscript is preserved on microfilm at Warwick County Record Office, under reference MI 258, and the title "Knottesford-Fortescue Family of Cookshill (Worcestershire) and Alveston".
Transcribed and Contributed by Dr Stan Lapidge 2016

Frances Torlesse in Bygone Days writes about Francis Knottesford:
In 1806 the Rev F. F. Knottesford became curate (of Stoke-by-Nayland) and lived in the curates house. He married Maria Downing, aunt of Mrs Liveing of Nayland, Mrs Howard nee Liveing writes of Mr Knottesford. "Uncle Knottesford identified himself with the early evangelicals because he felt the spiritual life of the church was in them. He had a natural taste for all that was beautiful in church architecture, music, etc; and I have heard him chant the Psalms for the day to his own accompaniment on the harpsichord. He was a good classical scholar and also a student of Divinity. It is said of him (by Archbishop Tait, I think) that he lived so much in study with the non-jurors that he imbibed their views. Whether or not, he was a truly devout and good man, and I have heard him say what grief it was to him when Tract 90 was published, he having previously built his hopes on the Oxford movement as doing just what he wanted in the English Church, but he could never go with them further. Of course he had peculiarities, i.e. he taught his coachman Greek, and he always gave to beggars for fear of sending one needy person away. His handwriting was so minute that he wrote with a crow-quill; he was extremely shortsighted"
Mr Knottesford left Stoke in 1823 . . . . .
Bygone Days Pgs 18-19

To The Clergy.
The curacy of Stoke next Nayland, in Suffolk, vacant, of which immediate possession may be had, and an excellent house, lately occupied by a clergyman, since deceased, for the education of young gentleman.
Apply to Mr Alston Nayland.
Ref: Ipswich Journal Saturday May 21 1803.

St Mary's Stoke.
Burial Register.
"The Rev Blaze Morey Priest of the Romish Church buried by F.F.Knottesford"
Bygone Days Pg 16.

Extracts from an Article by Nicholas Fogg 1991
Francis Fortescue was born in Suffolk in 1771, the son of John Fortescue, an army officer of Cookhill near Alcester. He was educated at Eton and at The Queen's College, Oxford. He took his B.A. in 1793 and Holy Orders soon after. In 1805 he married Maria, daughter of the Revd. George Downing, Prebendary of Ely Cathedral. As a young man he inherited the considerable property of Alveston Manor, near Stratford, from his fathers cousin on condition that he added the name Knottesford to his own. Although he adhered scrupulously to his agreement, the name does not appear to have been popular in his family, his son Edward first reversed the surname to Knottesford Fortescue and then increasingly drooped the former name altogether.
In his religious life, Mr. Fortescue Knottesford anticipated many of the practices and beliefs later associated with the Tractarians. At Alveston, he amassed a large library of Catholic theology, which was extended by his son. On either side of the house were glass conservatories, which he treated as cloisters, pacing around them, while reciting the 119th Psalm. According to family tradition he said at least the small hours and perhaps the whole daily office of the breviary in Latin, a custom which many of those later associated with the Oxford Movement were to adopt. His confessor was Dr. Routh, the notable and long-lived President of Magdalen College. W.H. Hutton, who wrote a sort biographical note about Knottesford after conversations with his great-grandson, was surely correct in his view that although the latter part of his life ran parallel to the Oxford Movement, yet his religious training was entirely previous to it and apart from it. . . . . he is one of the proofs that confession never really died out in the Church of England.
Francis was actively involved in the Church Missionary Society, and social changes of the time including seeking to abolish the chimney boys and supporting the abolition of slavery.
*Out of a sense of duty Francis accepted the living of Billesley, a hamlet of five houses and a Queen Anne church 5 miles from Stratford. Each Sunday at Alveston, the family coach would be brought to the front door for the whole household to embark on the 6 mile journey to Billesley for the morning service at 11 o'clock. After the service the rector followed the notable English tradition of observing the Sunday rest for his servants as far as possible. He retired to the family pew, which contained a fire grate. The footman laid a tablecloth on the seat and the fire was lit and a cold dinner, brought over in the coach, was served.
After dinner, the children played in the churchyard, the rector rested in the pew and the servants finished up the dinner elsewhere. At three o'clock came evening prayers and a sermon, after which the household climbed back on the coach and journeyed home.
This period after the Napoleonic Wars saw a weakening of doctrines within the established Church of England to make it more inclusive. Catholic Emancipation and other changes promoted the cry from Conservative churchmen that "The Church Was in Danger"
Francis became involved with Wilmcote, at the invitation of the local squire Charles Corbett in 1840. It was an outlying village from Stratford, which had developed in the early 19th century around its cement quarries. Corbett gave land for a church and school, and St Andrews, Wilmcote, was consecrated on the 11th of November 1841. The school was completed in 1845.
Francis nominated his son Edward to the living, Nicholas Fogg describes Edward as a scholar of distinction and a priest of great commitment. Edward was a follower of the Oxford Movement (viewed by many as an ecclesiastical Trojan horse towards Roman Catholicism) and Wilmcote was probably the first church in England to revive the use of vestments, a choir was developed and a chanted Cathedral Service was introduced. This and the general tone of the services did not go down well with Charles Corbett.
This article was also published in Warwickshire History, volume 8, number 4.

Francis Forksure Knottesford
Age: 87
Birth Date: 1772
Burial Date: 8 Jun 1859
Burial Place: Billesley, Warwick, England
FHL Film Number: 367773
Reference ID: pg. 5 no. 37

Stan Lapidge confirms Francis is buried at Billesley churchyard, and that there is a plaque in his memory in the small side chapel where he used to have his lunch, after the morning service and before evensong*, see above in the Warwickshire History Article.

Death Registration: Knottesford Francis Fortescue 1859 2nd.Qtr. Stratford WAR 6d 312

Knottesford The Rev Francis Fortescue. 6 August 1859 The Will of the Rev Francis Fortescue Knottesford late of Alveston Manor House near Stratford-on-Avon in the County of Warwick Clerk deceased who died 31 May 1859 at Alveston Manor House aforesaid was proved at the Principle Registry by the oath of the Rev Edward Bowles Knottesford Fortescue of the City of Perth in North Britain Clerk Provost of Perth Cathedral the son and the surviving Executor. Effects under £25,000.
National Probate Calendar.

bullet  Research Notes:

Liveing Archive: Image IMG3975.


bullet  Other Records

1. Census: England, 7 Jun 1841, Manor House Alveston WAR. Francis is recoded as aged 69 a clergyman not born WAR

2. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 14 Mar 1843.
Liveing Archive

Written at the top of the letter:
Death of Edward Liveing
F.F.K. to C.M.L.

Alveston Manor March 14th 1843
"He is a Father of the fatherless, & defender of the cause of the widow." "Leave thy fatherless children (to my care) & let thy widows trust in me." Such are the gracious declarations of Him, who is full of mercy & loving-kindness; who doth not afflict willingly, nor grieve the children of men; & who, tho' he may sometimes see fit to chasten his own dear servants, yet will never leave them nor forsake them. To this gracious & almighty Being I must commend you, my very dear niece, for He is the Father of Mercies & the God of all consolation; & from Him alone can substantial comfort flow under such a bereavement as that you are now called to experience. Miserable comforters are we all, when compared with Him whose consolations are neither few nor small: who can speak to the heart, & apply with certain effect a suitable medicine for every wound; for He hath said, I kill & I make alive, I wound & I heal1. He will be Husband, Father, Friend, yea all in all to them who cast their care upon Him, seeing He careth for them. And whereas we might think that a Being so highly exalted & by nature impassible, could not in any way participate in
(page 2)
sorrows from which he is totally exempt; he has provided a strong consolation in the assurance we have, that as God manifested in the flesh, he is touched with a feeling for our infirmities, having in his own person borne our griefs & carried our sorrows; & having been in all points tempted & tried like as we are, is made experimentally capable of compassion, & both able & willing to succour those who are tempted; & in all our afflictions is himself afflicted. He who has removed the greater evil will surely support us under the less. He has borne our sins for us; surely therefore he will carry or help us to carry our sorrows, those sorrows which are the consequence of sin, & to which we are still exposed, tho' we enjoy the blessedness of those whose unrighteousness is forgiven & whose sin is covered. Happy indeed may we think ourselves, if we have reason to believe that the heaviest burden of all is removed; for in that case, as we are Christ's, so may we be assured that all things are ours, & shall turn to our profit, whether life or death, or things present, or things to come: whatever happens to us in the course of God's providential dispensation shall work together for our goode [sic], & tend to the advancement of our best & lasting interests. What good & necessary thing will he withhold from us, who spared not his own Son, but gave him up for us, that we might obtain salvation thro' him: & what shall we withhold from him, who has bestowed such an unspeakable gift upon us, & with him all things we enjoy & possess, shall we not be ready to surrender all again to him, when he recalls any of his gifts, or rather loans, even tho' they be most dear & precious to us, as Abraham did when he stretched out his own hand to sacrifice his Isaac. You are now called on
(page 3)
to surrender the dearest object of your affection, but you are not required, as he was, to be the instrument of separation. No, herein his trial & faith exceeded all that we can experience. Our merciful Father with his own hand removes his blessings; and that gently & gradually, & as in your case, with the well grounded conviction, as he departed in the faith & fear of Christ, relying on his atonement for pardon & justification & having been fruitful in all good works, that he removed your Beloved from a world of pain & sorrow, to a state of glory & endless felicity, for which, abstractedly speaking, we have abundant reason to yield him our humble & hearty thanks. But nature will feel & ought to feel, or we should be inhuman & lose the benefit of these trying dispensations. We must neither despise the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when we are rebuked of him; our blessed Saviour exhibited in his humanity the tender feelings of nature, when he wept at the grave of his friend Lazarus, and thereby consecrated the tear (sic) of sensibility. But we must not be cast down, as tho' we had lost our all, while Christ is present with us, & able to supply every loss; neither must we sorrow as those who are without hope for those who die in the Lord; rather let us strive more earnestly to follow them who thro' faith & patience now inherit the promises, that we may join them hereafter in that blissful region, where parting will be known no more, but we shall ever be with the Lord, rejoicing & triumphing in his salvation. Be assured, my dear niece, we feel deeply for you & all your amiable family & shall be thankful to hear of you, thro' some kind hand, & also the time of interment. We doubt not but that according to your day so will your strength be2, and that underneath are placed the everlasting arms. I have been so shocked by the mourning intelligence just received that I fear I have
(page 4)
written very incoherently, but I was desirous of immediately expressing our sincere sympathy & condolence on this unlooked for event. I fully persuaded myself that the friend & relative, whom I highly valued, & with every one who knew him, justly esteemed, would have been spared to his afflicted family, and been longer continued a blessing, as he has been in an eminent degree to the surrounding neighbourhood, who I am sure must sensibly feel their irreparable loss. But He who doeth all things well, has ordered otherwise; & who shall say unto Him, what doest Thou? Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right? He took him, when he saw it would be most for his own glory & his servant's profit. We must be dumb & not open our mouths, for He has done it, & that is enough to satisfy us of the wisdom, & love & mercy of the dispensation. There we must rest, & only in so doing shall we find rest & comfort to our burdened & sorrowful spirits. But I am aware that another breach may soon be made. Well: be not discouraged, only believe & trust in the same almighty arm for support & comfort. He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven they shall not overwhelm thee3. He maketh sore & bindeth up; He woundeth & his hands make whole. God moves in a mysterious way, but always in the right way, tho' we may not always see the reasons for his dealings with us. Should it be his will also to remove our much loved cousin, you may be thankful that one most nearly concerned is spared the grief of separation here, & not only so, but is resting in Abraham's bosom, ready with joy that will never fade to await her entrance into that blest abode, where there shall be no more sickness, sorrow, pain, or death, but glory & felicity unspeakable everlasting. Presenting kind comforts to Mr Henry Liveing, with thanks for his letter. All here write in earnest prayer that every needful help & strength may be imparted to you & your bereaved family, with, my dear niece, your faithful and affectionate friend & uncle,
F. Fortescue Knottesford

Your aunt will write soon.
1. Deuteronomy, chapter 32, verse 39.
2. Deuteronomy, 33.25.
3. Job, 5.19.
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge.

3. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 12 Dec 1843.
Liveing Archive
Alveston Manor, Dec. 12, 1843
My dear niece,
Altho' I have not addressed you for some time, yet I can assure you, I have had you often in my thoughts, & sympathized with you in all your sorrows. I have followed you in all your movements, & watched with you in your maternal cares & attendance on on (sic) your beloved family. That a new source of anxiety has arisen in the illness of another daughter has been a cause of grief to me & to us all. We feel assured however that this also shall be reckoned amongst the "all things" that will work together for your everlasting good: for it is not one thing only, but all taken together, the whole course of God's dispensations towards us, that being duly improved thro' his accompanying
(page 2)
grace shall produce this salutary effect. And we are to remember that in these all things1 every thing is to be comprehended that befalls us thro' his Providence, whether it be adversity or prosperity, poverty or riches, sickness or health. We are not to be the choosers, but must leave our condition with Him, who alone knows what is really best for us & what will contribute most to our progress in the Christian course, & consequently to our possession of the eternal inheritance laid up for them who thro' faith & patience shall endure unto the end, in confident reliance on his promise. Blessed is the man that endureth temptation, for when he is tried he shall receive the crown of life which God hath promised to them [that]2 love him. It is thro'tribulation that we must enter the Kingdom of God, & therefore no Cross, no Crown. However as he sees fit, he is pleased sometimes to change his countenance, & to send forth his brighter beams upon us: mixing mercy with judgment. From the last report you gave us, I hope that your anxiety respecting Sarah Anne is diminishing, & that she will recover her accustomed health3. I think too that you have reason to be thankful (as removal had providentially become necessary)

1 It is probable that the words "all things" should be in quotation marks here, as referring back to the "all things" that will work together for good, on the previous page.
2 The word "that" appears to have been omitted inadvertently, and has been inserted by the editor.
3 Sadly, Sarah Anne did not recover, and Francis's letter to Mrs Liveing dated the 21st March 1844 offers his condolences upon her death.

(page 3)
that so suitable & comfortable an habitation was prepared for you at Stoke where you are placed within reach of many friends by whom you are esteemed & beloved especially Mr Torlesse4 and his family (to whom please to remember me & all enquiring friends at our beloved Stoke & elsewhere5) under whose ministry too, you are likely to derive edification & comfort, when you can attend it. The only disadvantage respecting your situation that I am aware of is its distance from the church, but perhaps you have some little carriage that conveys you thither. Possibly you & your young people may like to be acquainted with our proceedings at the wedding, of which I will now give you some details. The marriage was solemnised at Billesley (where Mr J6 had previously kept the residence required), & a solemn service indeed it was, the most so of any marriage at which I ever was present as the administration of the Holy Sacrament accompanied it, according to the recommendation of the Church, it seems peculiarly appropriate upon the occasion when the mystical union between Christ & his Church is so strikingly represented. Edward performed the ceremony in the body of the Church previous to the Introit or Psalm, which was sung whilst we walked up to the altar where Edward proceeded with the remainder of the service to the end of the prayers. The Sanctus

4 The Reverend Charles Martin Torlesse was curate, and later vicar, of Stoke by Nayland (the location of Mrs. Liveing's new home) from 1832 until his death in 1881.
5 Francis had lived at Stoke by Nayland before he inherited Alveston Manor, near Stratford upon Avon.
6 Mr J is Francis George Jackson, and his bride was Francis's own daughter Maria Margaretta Knottesford. It is understood that the wedding took place on the 23rd November, 1843. Mr Jackson was a clergyman and (as is explained later in this letter) became Francis's assistant priest at Billesley, and also took services at Wilmcote whenever Edward was unwell.
(page 4)
was then sung by the Wilmcote choir who attended in their surplices, & were placed in due order on opposite sides. We then changed places, I taking the north side of the Lord's Table, chanted the Communion Service, the responses being made very sweetly by the choir as at Wilmcote; the Bride & Bridegroom alone kneeling at the altar till they communicated. There was a longer communion than usual as all our usual attendants were present beside the bridal company, & £4 5s were collected at the Offertory which was sent to a distressed family now bereaved of their parent by desire of Mr & Mrs J (for we have no poor). After the Nicene Creed, Edward ascended the pulpit & having read the Church's exhortation, delivered a most powerful & impressive address, on the subject of marriage & of the Holy Sacrament as connected with it, explaining the reasons & propriety of it to the congregation. I was surprised & delighted, for I never heard him attempt anything of the kind before but suppose he is in the habit of doing so at W[ilmcote] for otherwise he could hardly preach so many sermons as he does, besides which he catechises & explains the C [?] every Sunday afternoon for the benefit of the congregation. The day without was dull, but all was bright within. Our party filled four carriages. In Lady Jackson's7 went first Mr J, accompanied by Mr Morgan. In the Archdeacon's8 Mrs Tait i.e. K. Spooner9 Maria's great friend who lately married Dr Tait the Head Master of Rugby School10, a great match to a very clever & excellent man with an income of £4000 per annum.

7 The groom's mother; something is said about her later in the letter.
8 William Spooner, the Archdeacon of Coventry, was the father of both Mrs Tait and also Mrs Fortescue (on whom see the following notes).
9 Catharine Spooner was the sister of Frances (Fanny) Anne Spooner, the wife of Edward Fortescue: so that Edward was related by marriage to the future Archbishop of Canterbury.
10 Dr Tait later became first Dean of Carlisle, then Bishop of London, and ultimately Archbishop of Canterbury.
(page 5)
Mrs Fortescue11, Miss Tyndale & the children. In Mr Annesley's carriage the four bridesmaids: two Miss Annesleys, Miss Jackson & Miss Spooner, all dressed alike: & last in ours, the bride who looked extremely well, Lady Jackson, your aunt & myself. It did not actually rain, but if it had done so, we should have been secured by the kind & beautiful contrivance of our friends the Mills12, who had prepared a covered way of evergreens, floored with matting, all the way thro' a large farm yard to the church gate (which I had ordered to be so prepared as to drive thro', which we do not usually do as it is very troublesome). At the entrance into this beautiful grove stood a servant with an elegant basket lined with white satin & filled with choice flowers procured from Leamington I should suppose at no small expense, & presented each person with a bouquet as they got out of the carriages. We returned in reversed order, the bride & bridegroom in13 front Edward & Mr Morgan being in our carriage which immediately followed them. Miss Mills also accompanying in her carriage to spend the day with us. Three arches had been erected during our absence by the servants on the approach to the house, and the doors adorned with flowers. At two o'clock we had a dejeuné, after which our dear Edward made two speeches highly creditable to his taste & feeling, which were inadequately responded to by myself & Mr Jackson.

11 It is assumed that this is Frances (Fanny) Anne Spooner, the wife of Edward Fortescue.
12 Mr Arthur Mills was Francis's cousin.
13 The word "in" has been supplied by the editor; it is not in the text.
(page 6)
At 3 the B. & Bridegroom went away in Lady J.'s carriage with her man & maidservant to her house near Worcester, which she has lately taken to be within a reasonable distance of her son, of whom she is very justly proud; for he is a very amiable man & most devotedly attached to Maria. There they still remain, having given up a once proposed journey into Hampshire, where they were invited by an aunt of his, till the summer. They will go to Rugby14 for a few days & from thence return home before Christmas day bringing Little brown15 back with them as Mrs Tait took her home with her for changes [.....?] We dined late & had a very pleasant evening with the rest of the company, all of whom, except the Misses Annesley, were accommodated not without some difficulty in our house. Lady J staid (sic) till Monday, when our son & daughter16 came over to luncheon (25 miles) & she returned with them. The only drawback was the absence of our dear Fanny17 & her excellent husband & of Miss Mordaunt18 who was to have been one of the bridesmaids, but the wedding was necessarily so long delayed in consequence of difficulties arising about the settlement, that neither of those parties could stay for it, the former being obliged to return home after 7 weeks' absence, & the latter to leave home for Hastings on account of her health for the winter; this was a sore disappointment to dear Maria.

14 Presumably, in order to visit Mr & Mrs Tait.
15 This may be a reference to a horse which Mrs Tait had taken for her journey from the wedding back to Rugby, and which Mr & Mrs Jackson are to bring back.
16 The word "our" here is probably a misprint for "her": Francis's only surviving son was Edward, who was clearly present throughout the festivities, rather than only coming for luncheon on Monday; and his only daughter, apart from Maria, was Mrs Frances Dewe, who lived in Norfolk, much more than 25 miles away from Alveston.
17 This Fanny is Frances Catherine Knottesford [9951] Mrs Frances Dewe, not Fanny Anne: Fanny's husband Rev Joseph Dewe was not able to stay for the wedding, whereas Fanny Anne's husband conducted it!
18 A relative of Sir John Mordaunt, a close friend of Francis and the High Sheriff of Warwickshire and Member of Parliament for South Warwickshire, whose death is referred to in Francis's letter of the 9th October 1845.
(page 7)
Now I must tell you who Mr Jackson is, which it seems has not been explained to you. With his grandfather Dr Jackson who was Canon Res[identiary] of St. Pauls & would have been a bishop had he lived, I was acquainted at Tottenham, & it was for him that I once preached in that great cathedral. When we came to Hadleigh19 we found there living, two old ladies, a Mrs Dowding & a Mrs Baines, the latter mother of the late Lady Knightley, the former of Mrs Jackson, who with her husband Dr J regularly visited her once a year, so that the acquaintance was renewed there. Dr Jackson had several children, one of whom married Mr Dawson Warren to whom he gave the great living of Edmonton, which my great uncle had, & in whose house there I was born. Dr J.'s eldest son was Mr Francis Jackson, a man of very superior talent, the great friend of Mr Canning, & ambassador at Constantinople & Denmark (I think) & was at Copenhagen when it was besieged by our naval forces, much against the inclination of K[ing] G[eorge] 3rd, who thought it an unjust proceeding, & would not favor those concerned in it. So Mr J. rose no higher as otherwise he would certainly have done. However he died not long after and left a family by a foreign peeress whom he had married. The second son was the present Sir George Jackson K.C.H.20 who for many years was the principal representative of our government at the Court of Brazil with whom his son was there for some time, but was obliged to leave him

19 It is understood that Francis was curate of Hadleigh, in Suffolk, before he inherited Alveston Manor, in Stratford upon Avon.
20 There is some information about Sir George Jackson at the diary: It appears that Sir George (re-)married in 1856 and retired in 1859 after a long diplomatic career, and that after his death his widow published two volumes of her late husband's letters and diaries. The writer of the article is not aware that Sir George had been married previously.
(page 8)
on account of his misconduct, which has occasioned a separation between him and his Lady. He is now returned home & living in London in a very disreputable way. No connection however subsists between him & the family, any further than a formal announcement of his son's marriage. Lady J's entire fortune was secured to her amounting to £1,200 per annum which is at her own disposal. Her sister has the same: they were daughters of Mr Savile of Oakhampton (sic) in Devonshire21 to which he had appointed the member before the Reform Bill, so that Mr Jackson is every way well connected; but what is far better, he is an excellent, amiable man, obliging & kind to an extraordinary degree. Mr Crawford's election to the mastership of the school at Brompton made an opening for him to succeed as my assistant at Billesley, which is not so much an object on my account as on Edward's, whose exertions are far too great for his strength & almost for that of any one, but Mr J who is a great friend of his & is extremely fond of him (& by whom he was first introduced here from Oxford) will always assist him when he needs it, as he often does, so that he will probably be as much or more at W[ilmcote] than at B[illesley] and that I dare say to his greater pleasure. The distance to the two churches is the same 4 miles tho' they are but 1½ mile apart, so that he can walk from one to the other, when he does not go on horseback for the whole day. Ed & Fanny Anne left us the week after the wedding for Wilmcote, & I am sorry to say having been without help now for several Sundays, he is now overdone, & we fear we must bring J & M home for next Sunday.

21 Albany Savile (1783 - 1831) became the Member of Parliament for Okehampton, and also the Recorder of Okehampton, in 1807, by virtue of the property owned by his father. Information about his parliamentary career may be found at <>.
(page 9)
We shall be obliged to you to inform us when you write, whether Miss Whishaw is yet living for we have not heard from her for a very long time. If you should ever have an opportunity of contacting them, the many people at Hadleigh who remember Mrs Dowding will know who Mr Jackson is as being her great grandson; & is therefore nephew to Mrs Warren who lived at Assington Hall22 & cousin to Mr W of Little Horsley & Mrs Morgill (?): by marriage: for Mrs Dowding's first husband was a Mr Warren, & so they are connected by half blood, with all that family. Lady J. has a half brother, Mr Ferrand M.P.23 who lives in a large place in Norfolk, where Mr & Mrs J. were invited to pass some time in their wedding tour, & perhaps would have done so if Mr & Mrs Dewe24 had not come here as they could have easily gone to see them from thence. I doubt I shall have quite worn out your patience & might as well have begun at once upon a larger sheet, but had no notion of enlarging so much: but having the pen in my hand, I have run on thinking you might like to know all about the family,

22 Assington Hall was in Suffolk, about 5 miles southeast of Sudbury. It burned down in 1857.
23 There was a William Busfeild Ferrand who was MP for Knaresborough, in Yorkshire, from 1841 to 1847, and who spoke in the debate on the Corn Laws. He later became MP for Devonport, and had a close connection with St Ives, in Cornwall. There is information about him at <> . This may be the MP to whom Francis is referring, although the editor has not found any evidence of a connection between Mr Ferrand and Norfolk.
24 Mr and Mrs Dewe are Francis's daughter Frances Catherine, and her husband the Reverend Joseph Dewe. Mr Dewe was Rector of Rockland St Mary, in Norfolk.
(page 10)
especially as you might hear some things that might seem unpleasant, & perhaps might not be correctly stated. Lady J. is a very peculiar woman, but has been very kind to Maria who is much attached to her new sister Georgiana who is a well informed, sensible & well disposed young woman; has travelled a good deal & is very communicative. There is another sister married to a Mr Hawkesley a clergyman near London. I will now finish this side by telling you of the pleasant visit Maria & I had to Hartlebury Castle25 (your aunt did not go, as Fanny Anne was just then expecting to be confined). It is a magnificent house, & has the advantage of the valuable library left to the See by Bishop Hurd containing his own collection with those of Bishop Warburton & Mr Pope26, for which a new room was built 80 feet long. In this delightful apartment the Bishop allowed me to read at pleasure during my stay. Two chaplains & some friends of ours in Oxfordshire were staying in the house & other company each day to dinner at 7 o'clock. At ½ past 9 in the morning & 10 in the evening the Bishop himself read prayers in the beautiful chapel which forms one wing of the Palace, the company & servants attending. The Park & gardens are extremely beautiful as is the country all around. The Bishop most happily combines dignity with kindness both at home & abroad, as we have twice experienced at our own house. We write in kindest love to yourself & those around you & believe me ever your truly affectionate uncle
F. Fortescue Knottesford
(continuation of page 10, written at the top of page 1)
the black seal is for Capt. Morgan, the only son of my first cousin Miss Fortescue, first wife to Mr Morgan but whom I scarcely remember. Mr M is now 85 in good health & spirits. I married his youngest daughter 2 months ago to her cousin Major McMahon just home from Dover [?] a very desirable match. He lives at Burton Dassett 16 miles from hence of which he is vicar. I am happy to add that we have just heard thro' Mr Pritchard that dear Edward is so much better that I hope there will be no necessity of bringing back the Jacksons.

25 The official residence of the Bishop of Worcester, about 5 miles south of Kidderminster, Worcestershire. Some information about the castle, including the very remarkable Hurd Library, may be found at <> .
26 The poet Alexander Pope: it is said that 43 volumes from his library are located here.
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge

4. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 21 Mar 1844.
Liveing Archive.
Alveston Manor, March 21st 1844
I hope my dear neice will not suppose that I have forgotten her because I have not expressed my sympathy during her late renewed season of tribulation, or that I have been regardless of her sorrows, or her joys, for I find that you have a portion of both in your cup as you had before. God has mixed mercy with judgment. No. This has not been the case: & I write now not so much to console with you for the loss of one removed from your sight for a time, as to rejoice with you in the assurance of your having been again honoured by the admission of another beloved child into the mansions of eternal bliss. For of this your own account, and one more detailed from Miss Stratford this morning leaves no room to doubt.
(Page 2)
Gratifying indeed is the description she gives of my amiable goddaughter's pious feeling of filial subjection to her heavenly Father's will during her painful trial & peculiarly interesting is it to me to hear that she derived instruction & comfort from the devotional contemplation of the excellent Bp. Hall1, who, I think, more than almost any other of our Divines, combines together learning, ingenuity, & piety. I am thankful that I can have been in the smallest degree instrumental to her edification and consolation, which I am sensible were in so large a manner administered by those immediately around her both by precept & example. You have now seen the precious fruit of your labors, and have the satisfaction of knowing that they have not been in vain. I think, that on a former occasion I suggested that it was a great honor to be greatly tried, that it was a mark of adoption, that faith would be strengthened as trials emerged?; you, my dear neice, have experienced the truth of these remarks; you have found that as your day, so has your health
(Page 3)
been. I rejoice in the victories you have gained over self thro' the great Captain of our salvation who will never bring his soldiers into the field without furnishing them with sufficient armour to enable them to come off triumphant from the combat. Tho' you sustain a great fight of afflictions, all shall terminate to your endless advantage by contributing to your growth in grace here, & to the lustre of your crown hereafter. But you must remember that you are not yet out of the field, for as Job says, the whole life of man is a warfare upon earth; these skirmishes may only be preparation for future engagements. You must not retire then as it were in security. You must keep your armour bright & ready for use, not knowing how suddenly you may be called again to put it on, but the oftener you overcome, the more confidence you gain in Him, who alone maketh you to triumph. Your trust in His promises becomes more firm. You experience that they never fail & thereby Leave (Serve?) encouragement to persevere in fighting the good fight of faith, that you may finish your course with joy & and keep the assurance of your hope stedfast to the end. He who hath delivered will yet deliver.
(Page 4)
You cannot confide too much in him or too little in yourself. Humility is the way to honor, & surely the more we experience of God's mercy and help, the more we feel our own nothingness, and the more humbly we shall walk before him. If it be good for you I pray that He may release you now for a while from these conflicts: but however He may see fit to deal with you, after what has occurred, I cannot doubt but that it will be in mercy & in love. At all events you will never be tried above what He will enable you to bear; He will be with you to guide & protect you, & with XP (Christ) in the vessel you may smile at the storm. This was the last day our dear Francis was at Church & then Easter Eve. What various events have occurred to each of us since that period! Oh, that they all may have been improved to the best advantage, & answer the end for which they have been sent! We have had for some time a weeping widow under our roof who seems to derive comfort from our society and family exercises. Maria and her amiable partner are at length settled with us. They are come for a long ride to return bridal outfits. So varied are the scenes of this life, but that of the next will be an unchanged and unchangeable one of joy & glory unspeakable & one continued act of love & adoration & praise to Him who hath purchased us with his own blood, & brought us to his heavenly kingdom.
Signed off on page 1
All desire to write in kindest love to yourself and those around you, with your faithful and affectionate friend and relative,
F. Fortescue Knottesford
1. It is believed that this refers to Joseph Hall (1574 - 1656), Bishop of Exeter from 1627 and later Bishop of Norwich, and the author of a number of devotional works.

Letter addressed to:
Mrs Edward Liveing
Stoke by Nayland

On the envelope is written:

F F K - C M L
Mar. 21 1844
condolence &
Religious comfort
On Aunt Sarah Ann (Liveing) death.
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge.

5. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 27 May 1850.
Liveing Archive 29a-b LT3
Alveston Manor
May 27, 1850
My dear Niece,
I was going to write to George1 on the subject of his visit to Oxford with his sisters, but after your very kind & welcome response to my request I now address you to thank you for your ready compliance with my wishes, & which I hope will not be an inconvenience to you. I do indeed desire to see you once more & I have reason to fear that another year I may not be able to enjoy your company, or perhaps not be seen at all & I thought it seemed a fair opportunity for you to accompany your daughter & see Oxford too but that you say you cannot do; this makes no difference to us. I am very sorry that the very infirm state of the Archdeacon's health renders it an imperative duty on F.A. and Edward2 to visit Elmdon at the time she3 proposed to visit them
(page 2)
but that I trust will not affect her coming to us on her way to the north as we shall be much pleased to see her. Now with respect to Oxford. I had thought that our friends had fixed on the week of the Commemoration4 for their visit: the time when Oxford appears in all its glory, but if I am not mistaken that is to take place in the following week: when the grandest services will be performed at New College, Magdalen & St Mary's5 & the speeches delivered in the Theatre6. The Doctors etc. all appearing in their full dress robes. In that case too you might accompany them, or come on to us. But however that may be, if they do go for next week they should be there on Saturday evening for the surplice prayer services Magdalen at 4 New College at 6 the Cathedral at Ch[rist] Ch[urch]7 can not be attended in the morning. It might be well to go there at 4 on Saturday or Sunday but they can at no time get into the Choir, as they may at New Coll[ege] or Magdalene [sic] by ticket from a Fellow. By using my name I doubt not but they might have one from the President8, Dr Ellerton9, Dr Bloxam10, or Mr Hansell11. I know no one now at New College but by proper application they may get one from a Fellow; they cannot get in there without. The leading objects, are the Theatre, Bodleian Library & Schools12, Ratcliffe [sic] Library, Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Hall, Cathedral, Library13, the Taylor Buildings14, the Physic Garden15, Ch[rist] Ch[urch] & Magdalen Walks, St John's & Worcester Gardens. Of minor
(page 3)
Chapels, Queens, All Souls (& Library), Wadham, Lincoln (wherein is the first painted glass16), Merton for the east window & proportions; notice the fine . . . . . in Magdalene [sic] Ch[apel]17 & the Noli Me Tangere18 in All Souls, the peculiar architecture (Norman) of the nave & splendid roof in the choir of the Cathedral & beautiful pillars supporting the entrance to the Hall & noble west front of the college; fine oriel windows at Lincoln & Pembroke. The sermons at St Mary's at ½ past 10 & 2 if the morning sermon is not at the Cathedral, as it is every third Sunday, about which you must enquire. The curious church at St Peter's in the East must be visited & the crypt under it. Go to the top of the Ratcliffe [sic] Library to see the extraordinary cluster of towers & pinnacles. I suggest these objects because often much time & many interesting things are lost for want of knowing when & where to go. You see by this you ought to go on Friday or early on Wednesday morning. Were it the Commemoration Week there would be the Act Sermon19 on Sunday; the Infirmary Sermon on Tuesday by the Bishop of Norwich20 with full choir service at St Mary's, & the Theatre on Wednesday. I think I have given every necessary instruction & hope they will have fine weather & much enjoyment. Maria21 will write to you as soon as the interesting tidings from Rockland22 reach us, which I hope will not be long past [?] & then you can arrange your plans accordingly. I have written in great haste which I beg you to excuse & believe me to be with our united kindest love from all to all.
your very affectionate uncle
F. Fortescue Knottesford

The following note (in another hand) appears at the top of the fourth page:
F.F.K. - M.K.L.
May 27 - 1850
directions for a visit to Oxford
of G.D.L. and his sisters
Archdeacon Spooner very feeble

1. Mrs Liveing's son George Downing Liveing, who was born in 1827 and who at the date of this letter was just finishing his studies at St John's College, Cambridge. He ultimately became Professor of Chemistry at Cambridge (The King's Candlesticks, 99).
2. The Archdeacon was the Venerable William Spooner, Rector of Elmdon (Warwickshire), where he lived, and Archdeacon of Coventry (TKC, 14680). Archdeacon Spooner was the father of Frances Anne Spooner (TKC 14679) (Francis's daughter-in-law, commonly known as "Fanny Anne", and here abbreviated as "F A"), who was married to Francis's son Edward Bowles Knottesford Fortescue (TKC 9950).
3. That is, Mrs Liveing's daughter, Mary.
4. Commemoration Week is so called because of the ceremonies in honour of the university's benefactors which are held then, including (until recently) a Commemoration Day sermon, and also the Encaenia ceremony, at the Sheldonian Theatre; the week is now marked primarily by the formal balls given by individual colleges.
5. The University Church of St Mary the Virgin.
6. The Sheldonian Theatre, designed by Christopher Wren and built for the University in the years 1664 - 1669. The building has almost never been used as a theatre, but instead as a venue for the University's ceremonial occasions.
7. Very oddly, Oxford Cathedral is also the College Chapel of the largest of Oxford's colleges, Christ Church.
8. Dr Martin Routh became President of Magdalen in 1791, and remained the college's president until his death in 1854, at the age of 99. He was a good friend of Francis, and is also said to have been his confessor (W.H. Hutton, Highways and Byways in Shakespeare's Country, MacMillan & Co. Ltd., St. Martin's Street, London, first edition 1914, first pocket edition 1926, page 207).
9. Dr Edward Ellerton (1770 - 1851) became Master of Magdalen College School in 1799, and afterwards became a Fellow of the College (ultimately becoming senior Fellow) and a lecturer in Divinity. Further information about him derives ultimately from the Dictionary of National Biography, and may be found at <>.
10. Dr John Rouse Bloxam (1807 - 1891) became a fellow of Magdalen in about 1836. Bloxam is perhaps best known as an associate of John Henry Newman: when Newman founded a form of retreat house at Littlemore, near Oxford, where the principles of the Tractarian movement could be put into effect, Bloxam served as his curate, from 1837 to February 1840. Bloxam also helped to establish Magdalen's Christmas rituals: details of this are given in the college's website, at <>.
11. The archives of Magdalen College confirm that Edward Halifax Hansell held a demyship (that is, a form of scholarship) at the college from 1832 to 1843, and that he was a Fellow of the College from 1847 to 1853. Details may be found at <>. 1
12. The Divinity School, a very fine 15th century Gothic building, is attached to the old Bodleian Library.
13. The Radcliffe (not "Ratcliffe") Library (now known as the Radcliffe Camera) was designed by James Gibbs and built in the years 1737 - 1749. It now provides additional reading rooms for the Bodleian Library. 14. The building of the Institutio Tayloriana, on St Giles, now forms part of the Bodleian Group of Libraries.
15. Originally founded in 1621, located on the High Street near Magdalen Bridge, and now known as the University of Oxford Botanic Garden.
16. A description of the glass in the east window, on the college's website, states that "The windows are the masterpiece of Abraham van Linge, 1629-31. They are not stained glass, but enamelled: the enamel was painted on then fired; the heat and length of firing determined the final colour. It is a tricky, sophisticated technique of which van Linge was the supreme master." The reference may be found at <>.
17. We cannot establish which feature of the Chapel Francis is recommending to his niece: sadly, the crucial word is indecipherable.
18. In 1769 All Souls commissioned the Bohemian-born painter Anton Raphael Mengs (1728 - 1779) to paint a "Noli me Tangere" (the appearance of Christ to Mary Magdalene after the Resurrection), for the main altar of the college's chapel. The painting was completed in 1771, and was the "centrepiece of the College chapel until the late 19th century", when the chapel was redesigned in Gothic style, and the painting was placed in the antechapel. The painting is now on loan to the National Gallery in London, but is not currently on display. For further information, see <>.
19. "The Act" appears to have been the university's name for the ceremonies taking place during its Commemoration Week, and so the "Act Sermon" must have been a significant part of the formalities. The University's own website says this about the ceremonies: "The Oxford Encaenia is the surviving part of a more extensive ceremony called 'The Act'. This used to include ambitious musical works, often composed for the occasion, and traditional features such as a satirical speech, often scurrilous and sometimes scandalous, by an anonymous speaker known as Terrae Filius, 'Son of the Earth'. The Act was originally held in the University Church of St Mary the Virgin, a setting many people thought unsuitable. Such feeling prompted its move in 1670 to the Sheldonian Theatre." (<>).
20. The Reading Mercury, for the 8th June, 1850 (page 3, column 4) writes, "The annual sermon at St Mary's in aid of the funds of the Radcliffe Infirmary will be preached by the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Norwich, and full cathedral service will be performed."
21. Presumably Francis's wife Maria (née Downing) (TKC, 7075), although it might also be his daughter Maria Margaretta (TKC, 9953).
22. The reference here is to Francis's elder daughter Frances Catherine (TKC, 9951) and her husband Joseph Dewe (TKC, 9952). Joseph was for many years the Rector of Rockland St Mary, in Norfolk. We do not know what news Francis was hoping to receive from his daughter and son-in-law. The reference to "interesting tidings" might suggest that Frances was expecting; but there is no evidence that she actually had a baby at this time.
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge.

6. Francis F Knottesford Letters: To Dr Martin Routh, 20 Dec 1850-3 Jul 1852.
Martin Joseph Routh (18 September 1755 - 22 December 1854) was an English classical scholar and President of Magdalen College, Oxford (1791'961854).

Francis Knottesford - Dr Routh
20 Dec, 1850
Alveston Manor
Dec[emb]er 20th 1850
Dear Mr President,
From the great kindness I have for so many years experienced at your hands & the interest you have expressed respecting me & my family, I flatter myself you will be pleased to hear that my son is now Dean of the Cathedral Church of Perth to which honorable office he was elected by the Canons on the 11th ult. after the consecration of the Church (the whole ceremonial of which was entrusted to his management) thro' the powerful recommendation of Lord Forbes & the Hon[ora]ble Mr Boyle, brother & Heir to the Earl of Glasgow & others, the chief promoters & contributors to the Building & institution, to which also I believe you were a Benefactor.
(page 2)
The following day he preached at an ordination held there by the Bp of Brechin who officiated upon these occasions for the Bp of Dunkeld now 85 y[ea]rs of age & too infirm to perform those duties. He preached again last Sunday morning to a crowded congregation, many of whom might attend thro' curiosity, but it is hoped that the numbers will not decrease. He is a powerful preacher, which was one very necessary qualification for the office [?] in Scotland & it is a station every way suited to his taste & talents. It requires much energy, zeal, & wisdom, & is a post of great responsibility in these critical times. He is also well qualified to instruct & regulate the Quire, which he says will be a very efficient one. May the great Head of the Church bless the undertaking & render him instrumental in promoting his Glory & the salvation of souls! He has brought back with him a print of the Cathedral which will be [?] he says, very beautiful, but as yet wants two arches [?] with the West Front which is to adorned with two end [?] spires for its completion. I mention these particulars because I remember the great interest you have always taken in the Episcopal Ch[urch] of Scotland which yet remains a pure breed [?] of the Catholic Church of ?God [?], & will probably afford
(page 3)
a refuge to many, who may feel conscientiously obliged to resign their preferments in our venerable & much loved Church, when she comes to be uncatholized (as in consequence of the violent feeling now often disgracefully displayed) . . . she is likely to be by having her devotional & primitive services impaired in order to conciliate & comprehend a certain party, & which many of our Germanizing Bishops & Deans will readily accede to; & if they do, will destroy the most powerful bulwark & most effective testimony against the errors & corruptions of the Church of Rome. The appointment to which I principally refer appears to be so remarkably a leading of Providence under existing circumstances, as it would be heedless to disregard. We therefore notwithstanding the distance readily acquiesce in it, & I am sure you will add your blessings to ours & those of his many friends that he may be blessed in this arduous but important undertaking for which however he is eminently qualified, as his patrons well knew [? know ?], & were therefore anxiously desirous that he should engage in it. But his services will be as free & voluntary as they have been at Wilmcote, where he has built a Church House & School & performed the duties of it without any remuneration whatever; & must now not look to have much more, if any, from his new preferment at present
(page 4)
assist him to enable him to discharge his new labours at Perth. He describes the town & country as most beautiful & the Society excellent. I hope, dear Sir, you will excuse my troubling [?] thus far & intruding on your precious time, which yet I trust, thro' the bounty of our heavenly Father will be further prolonged to your comfort & the edification of the Church.
Mrs Knottesford & my family unite in respectful comp[limen]ts to yourself & Mrs Routh who I hope continues as well as yourself to enjoy good health, & believe me to be, dear & reverend sir,

your faithful, obliged
& affectionate friend,
F. Fortescue Knottesford
With the permission of the President and Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford MC: PR30/1/C4/4, FOL. 225.

Francis Knottesford - Dr Routh
St Ninian's College,
July 3, 1852
Reverend & dear Sir
I beg to return my sincere thanks for the favor you have conferred on me, by sending me your seasonable republication of a valuable note on the Reliquiae augmented by additional testimonies & arguments in confirmation of the Apostolical institution of episcopacy against some [?] unwarranted assumptions of the Bishop of Rome, this summary is peculiarly useful at the present time, when these questions are so generally agitated & controverted. It gives me also great satisfaction to find that you are still able to pursue your theological investigations & to see that your handwriting is no less firm & clear than in former days. I received your kind packet at my son's [re]sidence as you will perceive by my address, with whom Mrs Knottesford & myself have been residing for some weeks, where we have been enjoying the rich scenery surrounding
(page 2)
this beautiful place; & yet more, the daily solemn services at the Cathedral, supposed to equal if not to exceed any in the Church of England. The taste & talent of the Dean especially qualify him for his situation [?] which is most important & difficult. The remarkable fluency of his language, & rich matter of his extempore discourses attract the attention of many, & under God's blessing on his indefatigable labors have won over many from the Kirk to the Church. But of the number confirmed in the spring twenty-seven were Presbyterian adults, & the like has been the case before. He preached a short time since, at Cumbrae (Mr Boyle's) without any preparation (the appointed Preacher for the day not arriving [?] in time) so ably on the subject of the Dedication of the Chapel lately erected there, that the Warden of Trinity Coll. Glenalmond held out his hand to me & said with earnestness [?], I do indeed congratulate you on having such a son, I had always a high opinion of his talents, but was not till now fully aware of their extent. & the Bp of Brechin, alluding to the Cathedral, spoke of him before the Company assembled as its distinguished Head. These circumstances cannot but gladden a Father's heart, & I am sure you will pardon my troubling you with a recital of them knowing also as I do by long experience the friendly interest you bear towards me & mine. He wins golden opinions & by his sound judgment & suavity of manners has done much to soften prejudices which arise more from the Church than from the Establishment, owing, I believe, in the latter case from utter indifference, for the spirit seems in great measure to have departed from it, what remains of vital religion is in the Free Kirk, which occasions a division in almost every parish. There is every reason to believe that the Institution at St Ninian's is eminently useful, & it gains daily in estimation. The dear Dean spoke of it as such at the Synod, & as a centre of
(page 3)
unity which had been much wanted in this portion of Christ's Holy Catholic Church, which observations were received with marked attention, & good understanding & I may say indeed a cordial friendship subsists between the Dean & the Warden which is on many accounts highly desirable & beneficial. There are two contending parties in the Church here, & dear Edward has the happiness & the advantage of being well spoken of by both in their several publications. You my dear Sir, had instilled into me a reverence & respect for this branch of Christ's Church 60 years ago, but I never then thought of being [?] so deeply interested in it as I now am, & to have joined in Communion with her & from my own son's hands, to have received the blessed sacrament administered according to the order of her ......... [?] beautiful & primitive liturgy - which according to the Statutes must always be used in the Cathedral & which he celebrated with peculiar devotion & solemnity. Indeed the whole is perhaps unparalleled altogether, & if all Cathedrals had been managed as this is, & made, as they were intended to be, nurseries of piety & learning, they would not have been attacked as they have been, nor would God's just anger have been thus manifested in their spoliation. I trust you will be glad to hear this, as your munificent [?] sister was so large a contributor to the Institution. The great difficulty to be encountered is want of funds for its support. The Dean & Canons perform their services almost without remuneration, seeking only the glory of God & not their own profit, which in fact renders them more honorable, than if they were adequately paid for their work: but this is not appreciated by the world & unless an endowment can be obtained it does not appear how it can stand. Men will not always be found to work for nothing, & then what must the consequence be? They are now about to build the College, with the hope of securing 50 or so boys in a middle school, for at present they are at a great expense in hiring houses for the Dean Canons & Choristers
(page 4)
& yet have not accommodation for the number of boys who would be glad to receive instruction, & would thereby in many cases, be moreover brought into the church. I grieve to find that there is a great disposition both in Clergy & Laity to get rid of their primitive Liturgy, & it is now not used in many churches, I believe, only in one in Edinburgh. This may be done with the view of being united to the Ch[urch] of England, but they will thereby lose their main characteristic, of being the only Protestant Church which retains it, & I know not what advantage would be gained by a union [?]. This appears to be the view of some of our bishops, one of whom said to me, Why will they not get rid of their Popish liturgy & then they might perhaps become one with us. I doubt whether he was qualified duly to appreciate its merits, & so far is it from being Popish, that the Romanizing party rather prefer ours, as being more malleable than ours [sic], as I am told. We live in an age of despair [?] & division; may the great Head of the Church bring order out of confusion, & join us together in unity of spirit & in the Bond of Peace.

Mrs Knottesford & my son & daughter unite in respectful compliments to yourself & Mrs Routh, & believe me to be, Reverend

& dear Sir
your obliged & affectionate Friend & servant
F. Fortescue Knottesford
With the permission of the President and Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford MC: PR30/1/C4/4, FOL. 226.
Researched and transcribed by Dr S Lapidge 2016

7. Census: England, 30 Mar 1851, Bridgetown Manor House Alveston WAR. Francis is recorded as head of house married aged 78 rector of Billesley born Edmonton Sussex

8. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Dr Edward Liveing of Nayland SFK, 23 Nov 1840.
Liveing Archive.
Alveston Manor
November 23, 1840
My dear Sir
Mrs Knottesford agrees with me in thinking the plan you propose respecting the farm at Crowfield a good one, and therefore we thank you to communicate with Mr ardale? on the subject. I hope no great expense will be incurred by making this new arrangement. Perhaps it will be more convenient and desirable for you to take the farm, as it lies in your neighborhood and that we should have no share in money and in that case we shall gladly accede your wishes. This business should be transacted as soon as possible lest increased trouble should arise from the death of Mr Spencer who is the only surviving executor of Mrs J. Downings will.
Edward is gone into Dorsetshire to look at a church from where he expects to get some patterns for his new his own building at Wilmcote, and was to speak yesterday with Mr H. Wilberforce he is indefatigable in his actions in this new sphere of labor. It is quite surprising to hear how well these rustic people sing. They are instructed two nights in the week by one of the Stratford choir and we have the Venite and hymns chanted at Billesley in a manner which quite astonished(?) me on my return, but this is only a small part of his labors he spends three or four nights there every week in instructing the people because he can only meet with the male population at that time and we are so little satisfied with his returning during the winter at so late an hour that he and his amiable wife I going to resign their comfortable home and lodge in a farmhouse for a time that they may dwell among their people who are extremely attached to them, at least they will try it for a few weeks.
The . . . . . service at opening of the Church at Stratford on the Wednesday after our return was most imposing the choir consisted of near 40 persons men and boys all in surplices hired from Oxford they were placed in the transept headed by Mr Helmore, (now priest Vicar of Lichfield and . . . . . the dissenting minister), and a Vicar choral of Hereford. It was a saint's day so that we had an entire service which was chanted throughout. The Litany with the Responses exceeded any thing I ever heard: the Te Deum Sanctus and responses after the Commandments were most charmingly and accurately performed without an organ which alone increased the difficulty and the effect. The church is extremely beautiful the Throne Desk and Pulpit of exquisite workmanship about 40 clergy were present in gowns and hoods who walked in procession with the Mayor in his robes from the Town Hall to the church and were met at the entrance of the Churchyard by the choir in their surplices who preceded them into the church singing the 84th Psalm the Desk was only used for the Lessons we had an excellent sermon from Dr Rice the Master of . . . . . Hospital who was born at the Stratford the Bishops of Worcester and Rochester were prevented from preaching the former by ill-health and the latter on account of the death of the Marquess of Camden who married his daughter whose sister is the young Lady Mordaunt our neighbor at Walton where Edward met the Rp? at dinner last week who is the Dean of Worcester and is now going into residence. It is the Dowager Lady M who lives in our parish with whom Mama went to Ramsgate last autumn. There was an evening service at six o'clock performed in the same manner with the additional effect of candle light? but which unfortunately I was unable to attend having an exceedingly bad cold but all that went said it was inexpressibly beautiful. I did go in the morning but was afraid of joining in the procession and therefore went in the carriage and took my seats previously in the church which was very mortifying to me and I would not enjoy the service as I hoped to have done.
We are all now I am thankful to say tolerably well, and all write in kindest love and regards to all
With dear Sir
Yours faithfully
F Fortescue Knottesford

Letter on two sides of one page sealed with a postmark and addressed to:
Edward Liveing Esqre
On file with E L Fenn 2002.

9. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 12 Apr 1842.
Liveing Archive.
Alveston Manor April 12th 1842
My dear niece,
This morning's post has brought me the handsome & pleasing memorial of your late highly esteemed mother, with which you & Mr Liveing have so kindly favored me, & for which I beg you to accept my best thanks. I have indeed truly sympathized with you in this bereavement, knowing from experience what a rent is made by the loss of a parent who has been endeared by the exhibition of uniform & tender care & affection for so many years, & that parent too the only one which either of us ever had the privilege of recognising: so that in each case it is the first great shock we received & therefore the more deeply felt. The severity of it has however been much lessened to both of us by the new connexions we have been allowed, most happily, for ourselves, to form, & the consequent blessings we have, by the mercy of our heavenly Father, been permitted to enjoy in the new & more numerous objects of affection &
(page 2)
of love which have been so graciously bestowed upon us & which by a wise Providence are made to occupy a higher place in our hearts, than is held even by a Parent, because they require more of our care & attention, and the anxieties they occasion are counterbalanced in great measure by the strength of affection & interest whereby nature, or rather the God of nature attaches us to them. How much more sensibly would you have deplored this loss, had you now been left, as it were, solitary in the world, as in a certain degree you would have been, & would have felt yourself to have been, had you not been surrounded as you now are by nearer and dearer relatives, who administer so largely to your happiness & comfort: and I must think, my dear niece, that you have especial reason to be thankful for being blessed with a judicious, sensible & tender husband & with so many amiable & affectionate children, who in all that I have seen, bear witness to the excellent instruction they have received by the suavity of their manners & the propriety of their deportment. You must therefore dwell, as I am sure you do, rather on the mercies which are continued (& may they long be continued to you) than on those which have been withdrawn, and which in the regular course of things must necessarily in their season be withdrawn from us & hence I can assure you, it is a much more painful thing to part with a child than with a Parent, because it is more unnatural & we are less prepared for such an event, & it is the destruction of hopes & expectations which have been fondly formed & cherished in our bosoms. I doubt not but my beloved wife has acknowledged the very acceptable & valuable token of remembrance which you sent her. We shall each of us highly value these memorials of one, whose uniformly judicious modest (?) & sweet disposition endeared her to all with whom she was connected
(page 3)
& to none, out of her own immediate family, more than to ourselves. She lived in the regular discharge of the duties of her station, wherein she became eminently useful. It may truly be said of her, that having quietly, tho' helpfully, served her generation, she fell asleep as quietly in Jesus. I have always remembered you on the 8th of this month, and did so with especial interest on the last occasion, beseeching the Father of Mercies to bestow on you & yours every needful blessing both spiritual and temporal, & that you like her who has gone before, may live to see your children's children, brought up like your own in the nurture & admonition of the Lord, & made serviceable in their generation to the glory of God & the benefit of their fellow creatures. I thank you sincerely for your very kind remembrance of me on the 4th. I trust that you will continue to offer up supplications, on my behalf, for all the grace & help of which I stand in so much need, now that the shadows are lengthening & the grasshopper is becoming a burden1: but this holy season especially cheers us with a good hope beyond the grave, which if we are found in Jesus, will prove the gate of everlasting life, thro' which we shall pass to a joyful Resurrection, thro' his merits who died & was buried & rose again for us. I know not whether I ought to say I am sorry, but I am certainly much disappointed in not seeing you here this summer, & now I fear we must not expect to do so, but I did hope that nothing would have prevented your visiting us in the course of the year, as you may not find us in the old house at a more distant period: but our time is in His hands, with whom nothing is impossible, & who will do all things well. To Him we may commit ourselves with humble confidence for life or death, knowing that as Christ is God's, so all things are ours, if we are Christ's. Edward & Fanny Anne are now at Elmdon2. We took them to Henley (where the Archdeacon's carriage meets them) last Tuesday, at which very time, one of her brothers (Edward who was Mr Meade's pupil) was thrown out of a chaise in Birmingham on a heap of coals, & supposed to have been killed, to the intense grief of his parents: but I am thankful
(page 4)
to say, sense is gradually returning, & it is hoped he may recover from the immediate effects of the accident, tho' in the very delicate state of his health, which obliged him to miss the last term at Oxford, it will probably ultimately prove fatal. By great mercy his excellent Father had just before got out of the carriage where he was to be set down: & which was afterwards smashed to pieces by the horse running away. It had taken fright at something in the street. Edward was carried to the house of a relation where he now lies, to the comfort of his parents who are now with him. The last report thro' our dear Edward, who came to Wilmcote on Sunday, was favourable. The loss of the dear Archdeacon, had anything fatal happened to him, would indeed have been irreparable to his family, who are almost overwhelmed by the thought of the mercy of his escape. We unite in most kind remembrance (in which Mrs Stephenson joins) to yourself, Mr Liveing, & all your family, &
believe me to be, my dear niece,

your faithful friend & affectionate uncle,
F. Fortescue Knottesford

P.S. When I came to turn over my paper, I found it had been turned the wrong way, which awkwardness I hope you will excuse.
1 Ecclesiastes, Chapter 12, verse 5.
2 Edward was married to Frances Anne Spooner, who was the daughter of William Spooner. William Spooner was the Rector of Elmdon, south-east of Birmingham, and Archdeacon of Coventry. Edward and his wife were staying with his wife's parents, at her family home.

Envelope addressed to:
Mrs Liveing Nayland Colchester
On the envelope is written, in another hand:
12 Apr 1842
On death of Mrs Downing.
With grateful thanks to researcher & author Dr Stan Lapidge, who has transcribed the following letters from Francis's notoriously difficult hand.

10. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 9 Oct 1845.
Liveing Archive.
Alveston Manor Oct. 9th 1845
My dear neice (sic)
I am quite disappointed to find that George1 is not coming to us this week, as I fear he will not see any of his & your cousins, they being going to Elmdon2 on Tuesday for a fortnight or more, as the measles have not yet broke out among them, - Edward & Fanny Anne will also both be away. Laurence3 too is to be received on Sunday next, Mr & Mrs Acland & Archdeacon Manning4 being the sponsors & it would have been such a nice day for him to have gone with me to Wilmcote, where I shall not be able to go the following Sunday, & the service next Sunday will be very good. Well, this can't be helped now, but I write to say, that I hope you will not
(page 2)
fix any or at least not a very early day for my going to Snitterfield after his arrival here, as I much wish first to shew him Warwick Castle etc., tho' I fear the family may be coming down on account of the election of Ld. Brook to succeed Sir J. Mordaunt5, whose death has cast a gloom over the whole county. Oh who can tell what a day may bring forth! He & Lady Mordaunt were both here in good health & spirits the very day before the fatal blow was struck; who would have thought that the next morning would have been productive of so much pain & grief & misery. The accounts we have received of the state of the family have been most interesting. Mr Furneaux says, "I never saw such a touching union of intense grief with calm submission to God such as they all exhibit." The Bp (of Rochester) arrived this evening (the day after his death) - when he entered dear Lady Mordaunt's room she arose to meet him but sank on her knees in the middle of the room before they could meet. They had prayers in the church, which is close to the house every evening at 6 oclock, which proved a wealth of comfort to them, & will probably be continued, as Lady M has expressed a wish to that purpose. Mr Mills6 my cousin & innocent cause of this calamity - who has been almost distracted since its occurrence, attended the funeral on Friday last

1 George Downing Liveing (Mrs Liveing's son and Mr Knottesford's great-nephew), who was then aged about 17, and who afterwards became Professor of Chemistry at Cambridge.
2 The home of Archdeacon William Spooner (Archdeacon of Coventry) and Mrs Spooner, the parents of Frances (Fanny) Anne Knottesford Fortescue.
3 Laurence is believed to be Laurence Fortescue, the son of Edward Bowles Knottesford Fortescue and his wife Frances Anne Fortescue (nee Spooner), born on the 17th August, 1845. The Register of Baptisms for St Andrew's Church, Wilmcote, confirms that Lawrence Knottesford-Fortescue was privately baptised on the 1st September, 1845, and that he was "brought to Chapel" on the 12th October of that year. The godparents are listed as Henry Manning, Clerk; Thomas Dyke Acland; and Mary Ackland.
4 Henry Edward Manning, then Archdeacon of Chichester, and ultimately (after his conversion to Roman Catholicism) Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster.
5 Sir John Mordaunt, 9th Baronet, was High Sheriff of Warwickshire from 1833 until his death and represented the constituency of South Warwickshire in Parliament from 1836 until his death.
6 The Times for the 18th September 1845 reports that Mr Arthur Mills was out shooting with Sir John Mordaunt when he accidentally discharged his gun and shot Sir John in the legs.
(page 3)
& Lady M had the kindness & the strength of mind to see him immediately afterwards to manifest that she entertained no unfriendly feeling towards him. All the family (except Lady M) & household received the Sacrament on Sunday in which she wished to have joined, but was dissuaded by the medical attendants from making the attempt. The baby's christening has been from this grievous event necessarily deferred for three [HK?] Sundays (for Sir J lived for 25 days after the accident & there were at first hopes of his recovery but erysipelas arose in the leg into which 60 shot had entered, & permeated the whole system) but Mr & Mrs Acland have agreed to go to Wilmcote on Saturday night & stay the whole of Sunday with Edward. Archdeacon Manning also is expected there on Saturday. Perhaps I ought not to have troubled you with these particulars, but they have so engrossed our attention, that we could scarcely think of any thing else, & as the feelings & admirable behaviour of the mournful widow is in some measure a counterpart of your own conduct, they may be interesting to you tho' a stranger, & at all events afford a ground of thankfulness to Him who is the Widow's Friend, & the Protector of the fatherless, together with a gratifying assurance that the Father of Mercies & the God all (sic) consolations never fails to bestow his grace & strength on all who trust in him & sincerely obey him. I am sorry to say that Maria7 continues still a great invalid tho' she joins us occasionally for an hour or two after dinner. Her babe is doing well & was baptised at Billesley, where she also was churched last Sunday three weeks, & Fanny Anne8 at Wilmcote the same day, which I accompanied in the afternoon, having previously performed the whole morning duty at Stratford
(page 4)
it being the first time Ed. had been left alone in the morning since his illness, but he did not suffer from it. The Bp of Worcester who was here on two successive weeks at the Confirmation & the Visitation left us together with the Chancellor only two days before Maria was confined: so it was a near run, & she later occupied her chamber. Your dear Aunt has had a great deal of fatigue, of which she feels the effects: but has not been laid up, tho' she occasionally indulges in the morning, as she does today, having taken a long drive yesterday, to pay visits. I trust you believe me to be too considerate to wish to detain George any considerable (sic) from more important occupations but I desire to guard against his only having an intermediate day or two for in that that case in the present state of weather it may mischance that I should not be able to take him out at all, & owing to the extraordinary frost in Sept. the beauties of autumn are fast fading away so that every day makes us look more & more desolate. I never before remember so melancholy an appearance, at so early a period.
All here write in kindest love to you & yours, with due remembrance to all friends & believe me to be
my very dear niece
most faithfully & affectionately yours,
F. Fortescue Knottesford

7 Maria is Mr Knottesford's daughter, Maria Margaretta Jackson (nee Knottesford), and it is believed that the baby is her eldest child, Mary Cordelia Jackson.
8 It is believed that this refers to Frances Anne Fortescue (nee Spooner), who was referred to in the family as "Fanny" or "Fanny Anne", and who had just given birth to Laurence Fortescue.

Envelope addressed to:
Mrs Edward Living
Stoke by Nayland

Endorsed on the envelope, in a different handwriting:
F F K - C M L
Oct 9 1845 (5)
Death of Sir J Mordaunt
from accident
Uncle George to
visit at Alveston
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge.

11. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 21 Jan 1848.
Liveing Archive.
Alveston Manor Jan. 21st 1848
My dear niece,
As you have kindly offered to be the medium of communication between me & Benj. Chillington, I trouble you to convey to him a donation of Ten Shillings, for which I enclose a Post Office order, which I fear must be received at Colchester of which I was not aware till it came, but thought it might have been directed to Nayland. I am sorry that you cannot give a more satisfactory account of his proceedings. I had always thought him honest, tho' rather stupid, & when I saw him some years ago at your house, he made no complaints, but
(page 2)
to be doing well. I cannot afford him more, as the claims upon my purse are so numerous that I scarcely know how to answer them & that this year has been a very expensive one every way. Edward & his family have been with us all the winter as well as summer & will stay here till they can occupy their new house, which they will probably be able to do after Easter, so that we now have more than twenty inmates. I am happy to tell you that your dear aunt's health is improving & she is daily regaining strength but does not yet venture out of her room, till evening when she sometimes joins us from dinner, or rather dessert to tea. Maria has been ailing for some time with cold & influenza hanging upon her & was threatened with the measles, but that apprehension is now removed but she still keeps her room; her youngest child had hers very [....erly?] & it was thought she had caught them. Fanny Anne is now laid up with influenza but getting better. Edward is for him very well at present, & is spending the whole week with us (a rare occurrence!). That has been very providential at this time, as Mr Jackson was laid up last Sunday week, & I was engaged at Stratford last Sunday. This duty I am still able to do without fatigue: tho'
(page 3)
in other ways I suffer from great weakness, but have much reason to be thankful for the mercies I enjoy. Should it please God to spare me so long I hope we shall have the pleasure of seeing you & some of your family with you in the course of the summer. I much wish you to see Edward's buildings which are very striking & form a beautiful cluster. I trust the dear Rocklandites will pay us a visit after Easter, & on their return wish that their places should be occupied by you, but we cannot calculate much upon future events. Our grand object must be to be ready for the summer, how soon or suddenly soever it may arrive. Should I live I shall probably have to present another Vicar to Aston, a remarkable circumstance at my age. Mr Hill who is but 32 being in a dying state. This is a very trying dispensation. Since he came into residence in February he has wrought a wonderful change in the Parish & been a great Benefactor to it. He has improved the Church House & garden, built new stables, & is now building a School room & House which will cost
(page 4)
£1000 & which it is not likely he will ever see, tho' it is nearly completed. It will be difficult to find another so qualified in every respect for the situation, professing activity, Piety, Judgment, & Fortune: but Jehovah jireh1: to Him we must look & in Him we must trust to provide. He moves indeed in a mysterious way, but we are sure to our comfort & encouragement always in the right way, however inscrutable it may appear to us: & hence arises the necessary exercise of Faith, which includes Hope, Confidence & Submission, casting all our care upon Him who careth for us, & worketh all things according to the counsel of his own all wise & righteous Will. You probably have seen in the papers the melancholy state of affairs at Clopton. We feel deeply for poor Mrs Warde, who deemed it necessary to leave her husband last spring & who by the Vice Chancellor's decree is deprived of her children, whom hitherto she has had with her & to whom she has been an excellent & devoted mother2. This is a case in which we must look for a Judgment to come to have things rightly ordered, & it strengthens our faith in that important Article of Belief. I do not say that the V. Ch. could have adjudged otherwise from the statements laid before him, by which I fear she has been ill advised, and is the innocent sufferer. This said she means to appeal to a higher court. The children were at Church on Sunday, the eldest a girl 9 years old. All here unite in love & best wishes for many happy years to you & yours, with, my dear niece, your affectionate uncle,
F. Fortescue Knottesford
(continued on page 1)
We rejoice to hear that you have escaped the prevailing epidemic, & that your excellent son is prospering at Cambridge. I hope he will not study too hard. Remember me to all my old friends.

1 The place on Mount Moriah where Abraham prepared Isaac for sacrifice, and later named "God will provide": Genesis, chapter 22, verse 14.
2 Mrs Marianne Warde had commenced divorce proceedings against her husband, Mr C.T. Warde, and attempted to gain custody of the children, on the grounds of Mr Warde's irreligious and loose behaviour. He was accused of bad language and indecent exposure to some of the servants as well as illicit relations with various women in the town. The relevant papers are held at the Shakespeare Centre Archive in Stratford upon Avon, under reference ER11/32/56 (1847).

Envelope addressed to:
Mrs Edward Living
Stoke by Nayland

Envelope annotated:
F F K - C M L (5B)
prob: of having
to appoint new
Vicar to Aston
Uncle G at
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge.

12. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 20 Dec 1850.
Liveing Archive 28a-d LT3
Alveston Manor
Dec[emb]er 20, 1850
My dear niece,
From the kind feeling you always express in regard to our family concerns I am persuaded that you & my dear young friends will be no less pleased than surprised to hear of the very sudden & unexpected change which has taken place as to the position of our beloved Edward who is actually Dean of the Cathedral Church of Perth, to which honorable office he was appointed by the Canons on the express recommendation of Lord Forbes, & the Hon[ora]ble Mr Boyle, brother & heir to the Earl of Glasgow & others who have been the principal contributors to this
(page 2)
great work. The Cathedral tho' not quite finished (two arches of the nave being wanting to its completion) was consecrated on Wednesday the 11th inst. & is extremely beautiful; the whole ceremonial of which was entrusted to his management; immediately after which he was elected, & preached on the following day at an ordination held there, by the B[isho]p of Brechin, nephew to Lord Forbes, which was followed by a confirmation in the afternoon. The B[isho]p of Dunkeld & Perth is 85 years of age & was too infirm to perform those duties, which therefore devolved on the B[isho]p of Brechin. He read the High Service & preached again last Sunday morning to a very crowded audience. He was sent for, for this express purpose by the personages before mentioned, so that there was no doubt of his appointment, of which strong hints had been given before, whereof he acquainted me about 3 weeks ago. This situation you will readily perceive, is exactly suited to his taste & talents as his friends well knew, & were therefore anxious that he should accept it. Many qualifications were requisite for so responsible a situation such as the management of a choir (which he says will be a very fine one) a powerful mode
(page 3)
of preaching, activity & zeal, all which he eminently possesses. The present calamitous circumstances of our dear Ch[urch] of England, which is too likely to be uncatholized [?], thro' the violence of the people (of which the most disgraceful evidence was given the other day at Warwick [?] as in too many other places) & the disposition of our many new Germanizing B[isho]ps & Deans) seem to render this a remarkably providential dispensation by giving him such a refuge in the truly venerable, pure & apostolic Episcopal Ch[urch] in Scotland: it would appear therefore (notwithstanding very trying accompanied as you easily imagine) such a direction as could not properly be disregarded; & I am thankful to say that your dear aunt sees it in this light & readily acquiesces in it. She seems indeed quite cheered by the consideration of it, which I hardly expected, on account of the necessary separation of such beloved objects at our age. It is acknowledged by all who know him that his great abilities required a larger sphere of action, which tho' he would never have sought, yet being thus freely offered & at such a time, he feels it a duty to undertake. He sees a great work before him in this new sphere, a work which will require great energy, & heavenly wisdom
(page 4)
which we most earnestly pray may be granted him by the great head of the Ch[urch] that he may be made instrumental in promoting the glory of God & the salvation of souls: & in this petition I am sure you will all join us with fervent desire. He returned on Tuesday night in 14 hours, so that distance is scarcely now formidable, & came to me on Wednesday, for our approval & other matters, which were necessarily to be arranged before he could decide for he will not have like his brother in law at Carlisle £1100 . . . . . for his labor, but it will be almost as gratuitously rendered as at Wilmcote, only the station is more honourable & more useful, & he is himself delighted for many reasons by the prospect. Perth he thinks is one of the most [sic] places he ever saw, & in a most beautiful & populous part of the country, abounding with noblemen's seats, among which are Dunkeld, the Duke of Atholl & Dupplin Castle, the Earl of Kinnold1. The new college of which Mr Wordsworth is the Principal is but 7 miles off; so that it is not a banishment into a desolate region, but one where there be much good clerical as well as other society; & it will be further advantageous as respects the education of the children, which they will [?] good & cheap, no trifling consideration in these days especially for boys, of which he has so many. He will move as soon as possible, because at
(top of page 1)
this time the body newly formed stands in especial need of a Head to manage & direct it. They are anxious therefore for his residence among them. My dear wife has had a cold but is getting better. Maria is going on well & hopes to be churched on Xmas evening. All here unite in kindest love to you & all around you, with, dear niece,
yr affectionate uncle
F. Fortescue Knottesford

The Archdeacon is well pleased, which I am very glad of & . . . . . expected in his very weak state. It is singular that he should have two daughters married to Deans & both at so great a distance.

Envelope addressed to:
Mrs Liveing
Stoke by Nayland
On the envelope is written:
F F K - C M L
Dec 20 1850 app. of E K F to Dean of Perth Mentions his brother in law (Tait) as dean of Carlisle
1Presumably this is a mis-spelling for the Earl of Kinnoul.
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge

13. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 25 Nov 1852.
Liveing Archive
Manor House, Alveston
Nov. 25, 1852
I feel that my first letter ought to be addressed to you, my dear niece, for whose very kind attention & sympathy I am truly obliged & thankful. I am constrained to address you now, (tho' my communication will occasion you some trouble, which I am sorry for) in consequence of a letter lately received from Mrs Torlesse1 respecting the calamitous event which has occurred at Stoke2, & I did not wish that she should be first person there, whilst you were residing in the parish, who should hear from me. It was written too in a
(page 2)
style so singularly cold & apathetic, as to a person of whom she had never heard & with whose present circumstances she was wholly unacquainted, not making any allusion whatever to my irreparable loss, nor even joining Mr Torlesse in the common courtesy, however unfelt, of ordinary remembrance & sympathy, that I scarcely knew how to answer it. Thro' you therefore I take the liberty of conveying the Post Office order made out to Mrs Torlesse for one guinea being all I can afford towards the relief of the affected widow & children of the poor sufferers. The circumstances were indeed deplorable & afflictive to the bereaved relatives but I cannot say, that thier (sic) case appears to be a peculiarly urgent one, the widow not having as I expected to hear 10 or 12 children, but only two sons, both grown up & able to get their living. But however, you are better judges, than I can be, of the case, & I am gladly willing, by this small contribution, to testify my remembrance of & sympathy with my old esteemed neighbours. This perhaps some of you may be able to do on Sunday. The very numerous tokens of regard & testimonies of sincere respect & affection for the dear
(page 3)
departed, some too from quarters where they might have been least expected, have contributed, as far as they could, to alleviate my deep sorrow under what I have before designated as my irreparable loss, as to me it must necessarily be in this world, but my greatest comfort arises from the conviction of the unalloyed & unfading blessedness she now enjoys in the presence of that Saviour whom she loved & so faithfully served in this life, & of which, it would argue too selfish a spirit to indulge a wish to deprive her by recalling her, for our sakes, into this world of sin & sorrow. Let this trying dispensation rather be a stimulus to stir me up to a closer following of her as she followed Christ, so that I may be prepared by a like holy & useful life to join her in God's good time, in that blissful region where parting will be known no more, but where we may for ever unite in the service & praises of Him who loved us & washed us from our sins in his own blood. He has purchased for his people an inheritance (sic) incorruptible undefiled & that fadeth not away, eternal in the Heavens3. The certainly not far distant approach of my own dissolution, which my advanced age infers, renders the separation on the whole less painful, tho' in some respects on that very account the void
(page 4)
must be more keenly felt: but I must reflect & I hope I do on the blessings left as well as on those that are removed. I thank God that I am not left wholly comfortless & alone as I might have been but am surrounded by affectionate children & grandchildren, who are unfailing in their endeavours to repair the loss I have sustained: but who can by thier (sic) best exertions, supply the place of a long endeared & beloved wife? I wish you could have been with us on the 16th ult. & thank you for the readiness wherewith you would have joined us, tho' at so great a distance. I much regretted your absence. It was a very affecting scene, & we had a very solemn & soothing service on the following day, with holy communion, administered by Mr Seymour, in which I am sure you would gladly & feelingly have united (sic), & been gratified & comforted by his excellent & appropriate sermon, which he has kindly allowed me to possess, & of which Maria will write copies for you & other interested friends. The Church was crowded, as you may suppose both morning & in the afternoon also, when dear Edward preached one of his extraordinary sermons, as he did also twice on the following Sunday, when all the people from Wilmcote etc. came to hear him. I was deprived of his company sooner than I should have been in consequence of the remarkable coincidence of the Bishop's death, whose public funeral on the 13th he felt obliged to attend, to oversee the arrangements, that everything might be done in due order.
(continued on page 1)
as all the clergy of the Diocese & many of the nobility & gentry were to attend. He left the Bp of Moray & Ross at his house, who preached for him on the Sunday when he first came here, & received the company at the funeral at which the Dean only appeared in his place to read the lesson & perform his part in the service. He was consequently much harrassed (sic) but like myself most graciously supported thro' all the trials & supplied with strength from above according to his day4! Dear Fanny tells me you contemplate a visit to Rockland which is very kind & will be very acceptable. All here write in kindest love to yourself & those around you with my dear niece your very affectionate & afflicted uncle F.F. Knottesford.
The near coincidence you mention was singular & affecting. Some books with Downing arms in them are reserved for you.
1. The Reverend Charles Martin Torlesse was first curate and then vicar of Stoke by Nayland (where Mrs Liveing resided) from 1832 until his death in 1881. He married Catherine Gurney Wakefield in 1823.
2. This may refer to two men who died 4 Nov 1852, in Stoke by Nayland when a well they were repairing collapsed upon them
3. First Epistle of Peter, chapter 1, verse 4.

4. Deuteronomy, chapter 33, verse 25.

Envelope addressed to:
Mrs Edward Liveing
Stoke by Nayland

Annotation on the envelope:
F F K - C M L 25 Nov 1852
Death of Aunt Knottesford
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge

14. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 17 Mar 1853.
Liveing Archive.
Alveston Manor
March 17, 1853
My Dear Niece,
I shall not take advantage of your kind consideration by withholding the expression in my own hand of my sincere congratulations on the successful termination of the election at St John's College in favour of your excellent son now are ranking as Fellow of that respectable Society far famed for its literary members reckoning among them so many eminent wranglers and first-class men. This indeed was no other than I fully expected from the
Page 2
superiority of his statements in various branches of science and the personage he enjoyed of some of the most distinguished professors. His success will further stimulate his younger brothers to diligence and perseverance in their several pursuits and it is enormous joy to us all to witness the fulfilment of Gods promises to the fatherless and the widow and that the deed of the righteous when proposing their example shall be blessed.
I gladly embrace this opportunity dear niece of assuring you how great pleasure I still experience if we live as God deemed in
seeing you and some of your family with you once again in the course of the coming summer. We can at no time speak with confidence of future events but I of course wish less every year and I sometimes feel my weakness and infirmities increase so much with my age that I is scarcely think I can live to see again the revival of nature. I passed the winter better than I expected (it was a horrible one for old people,) but the return of spring affects me a good deal and I am not just now so well as usual: but Mr Pritchard whom I consulted the
Page 3
other day tells me that my pulse is as firm and regular as ever and his prescriptions may by God's blessings strengthen me for a time. My cough is very troublesome especially at night and breaks my sleep nevertheless I am able as you heard still to preach
for the lungs are not affected, I am engaged to preach again at Stratford on Wednesday next: but the winter having now set in with us instead of spring it will hardly be proper for me to go out in the evening is specially with such important and interesting lately so soon following.
We are expecting Mary F:on? Saturday next to spend some weeks with us. Barbara Spooner brought her from Perth to Elmdon for change os the climate was thought too cold for her till May. The mention of dear Barbara, brings to my mind a letter I received from her while staying at Perth in January, part of it I wish to transcribe as it gives so gratifying an account of our beloved Edward. She says "I cannot tell you very much I have enjoyed my visit in Scotland and what a real pleasure it has been to me to become acquainted with your dear son in his work as Dean: that position has its difficulties, it is truly a missionary one, and the knowledge of his difficulties ought only to quicken ones interest and prayers in his behalf
Page 4
placed as he is in a Post of such honour and importance it is exceedingly delightful to see how he is looked up to and valued by those whose opinion is worth having and how others come to him for advice and consultation in their own troubles in that distracted Church and Country He has been very much harassed of late, but the new Bishop is now very friendly (. . . . . personally he always was) and the prospect is brighter and likely to terminate much to the advantage of the Cathedral Mr Boyle Lord Glasgow's brother, has been staying with Ed for the last month, with others, and is doing everything he can to comply with the views of the Bp I have had a very kind letter from the Bp on the subject, (who you know is the Warden of Trinity College at Glenalmond, where Eddie now is) and also from the President of Magd Coll now in his 99th year whose munificent sister Mrs Sheppard gave 1000 towards the establishment, when founded.
A letter from Mrs Stevenson yesterday informed us of the birth of a fourth daughter in her sons family, mother and child going on well. There are beside two sons.
All are well here at present and write in kindest Love to you and to all around you, with, dear niece,
your affectionate uncle
F Fortescue Knottesford
Remember me to all enquiring Friends.
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge.

15. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 9 May 1854.
Liveing Archive.
Alveston Manor
May 9th 1854
My dear niece,
The hymns arrived this morning. The extraordinary delay I find was owing to Mr Gomer's1 illness which has confined him to his room & almost to his bed for two months, & rendered him incapable of transacting any business. May I now beg the favor of you to advance me a sovereign, which will more than cover the 8 hymn books & the carriage of them paid to London. I trouble you thus far, because I remember he complained heavily of the
(page 2)
difficulty attending his obtaining a Post Office order, for which he was obliged to go to Colchester which I think he could not do for 6 months or more, & now is hardly able to do at all. Will it be agreeable to you to have a Post Office order for the sum. I had much rather you would come for it, as I quite hoped you would have done this summer, but I grieve to hear, that I am not to expect to see any of you this year & therefore probably never to see you again. This is a great disappointment, can it not be reversed? I have reason to be thankful for having passed thro' the last trying winter, better than I could have expected, but find weakness & infirmities increase; I am able still, however, thro' mercy, to perform my accustomed duties: preached twice on the Fast day, & once at Stratford on Sunday week, having read prayers at Alveston in the morning on the occasion of opening [?] a new organ in the Church. Mr & Mrs Dewe2 with their son George Downing3 accompanied me. They kindly supply the place of the Jackson's, who are taking their
(page 3)
holiday, and gone to see his aunt Mrs Taylor at Albany. Accept, dear niece, my best thanks for your kind remembrance of me on my birthday. I did not forget yours on the 8th. I had a very satisfactory letter from Edward the other day. Every thing is going on well at Perth. They have now a very large school, which was inspected a short time ago & highly estimated. He sent me a pirated [?] report in which Lawrence4 is distinguished as a prize man in the fourth class, of which he is very proud. He has been much engaged of late; during Lent he preached a course of weekly lectures on the St. John's Gospel, which were numerously attended. The Bp. also preached several times. He is very often at Perth, & has bought a house there. Their choir is enlarged & the services since Easter have been particularly fine, he thinks as fine as ever or finer, notwithstanding the loss of Mr Helmore (they have the Hallelujah chorus every Sunday after service in the afternoon). I hoped he would have come & met his sister, which he could not do last year, but he is appointed to preach at Oxford on the 25th of June which is the Commemoration Sunday (a most formidable concern [?] & therefore cannot of course come twice
(page 4)
but will pay his visit to us at that time. He wishes me to meet him there & once more see the President5 now 99 & sent me a book a few weeks ago, with his autograph in it (a great curiosity), & another copy of his work (in Latin) for Edward. I wish I might be able to do so, but fear I must not venture. Some of the children have got the measles, but are doing well, so F.A.6 cannot leave home, as she intended to have done, to see her father. Mrs Tait7 & Barbara spent a day here last week. Wednesday was our Ch. Miss. Meeting & we had here Mr Harston8 now Vicar of Tamworth & Rural Dean, but held [?] some years at Ipswich; a very sensible & agreeable man. Dear Fanny9 desires me to tell you with her best love to you & all with you that she was going to write to you this very day, but as I am doing the same she will defer her bulletin a trifle longer.
Remember me duly to all, and believe me to be
Your affectionate uncle,
F. Fortescue Knottesford
1. Edward Nutton Goymer published a Collection of Hymns, adapted to the Festivals and Fasts of the Church of England, and other Particular Occasions, at Ipswich in 1819. In his letter of the 14th May 1855 Francis reports that Mr Goymer has passed away, and speaks highly of his hymn book.
2. Mr & Mrs Dewe are Francis's daughter Frances Catherine.
3. George Downing Dewe [15867] was the eldest son of Mr and Mrs Dewe.
4. Edward's son Lawrence Fortescue, born on the 17th August, 1845.
5. Dr Martin Joseph Routh (1755 - 1854) was President of Magdalen College, Oxford (Francis's college) from 1791 until his death in December 1854. Mr W.H. Hutton, in his "Highways and Byways in Shakespeare's Country" , McMillan & Co., London, 1914 (first pocket edition, 1926), gives a portrait of Francis (pages 206 - 208), and states that Dr Routh was Francis's confessor as well as his close friend.
6. Edward's wife, Frances (Fanny) Anne, nee Spooner [15872]
7. Catherine Tait was a sister of Fanny Anne Fortescue,
8. The Reverend Edward Harston, M.A.
9. From Francis's letter of the 12th December 1843 it appears probable that Fanny is a different person from Fanny Anne (Edward's wife).

Envelope addressed to:
Mrs Living
Stoke by Nayland

Endorsed on the envelope:
F F K - C M L
May 9 1854
Gaginer [?] Hymn Books
Regrets C M L cannot come to Alveston this yr & feels his advancing age
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge.

16. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 4 Sep 1854.
Liveing Archive.
Alveston Manor
Sept. 4. 1854
My dear niece,
I can no longer withold (sic) my sincere congratulations on the late important event which has occurred in your beloved family: an event which I think on all grounds promises to be productive of happiness to those immediately concerned & of satisfaction to the connexions of both parties. For your excellent son I have a sincere esteem, & his conduct during the severe ordeal he has passed thro' in London seems to have been unblameable, like that of his exemplary father, & establishes the opinion I had formed of him. I rejoice
(page 2)
in his early union with an amiable lady which is the best step a young man can take in order to secure him from the temptations to which he is exposed in this dangerous world. I trust she will prove a true help meet to him & that as hiers (sic) together of the grace of life they will forward each other's best interests, & work together in the way that leadeth to another & a better state. May they long live in that mutual love & comfort for which Matrimony was ordained, & be daily made more meet for the enjoyment of richer pleasures, in the world to come. We had much pleasure in Mary's company, & only wish it could have been further prolonged: but we knew that her call was urgent, & the object of it gratifying. You heard from her of my unexpected excursion to Oxford & Rockland. It was indeed a renewal of scenes which I never thought again to have experienced. The spending a part of two days with the venerable President, who enters his 100th year the 19th of this month was most interesting & gratifying to me; as was also the seeing Rockland & its dear inmates once more at their own home so much improved since I last saw it. I really
(page 3)
think it a sweet place. I was remarkably well at the time & enjoyed the tour exceedingly, which embraced Ely & Peterborough Cathedrals. I have not been so well since, tho' still able to perform my public duties. I preached at Stratford yesterday & assisted at the sacrament; & the Sunday before did the whole duty at Aston, as (D.V.) I am likely to do next Sunday for Mr Fagge who is enjoying a holiday at Dover. We have been much gratified by a visit from Major & Mrs Hall, the latter a daughter of my old friend Mr Totton. They were at Perth, when we were there in 1852. They are charming people & this renewal of personal intercourse after 30 years is very pleasant. None of them had ever been here before. They were here two Sundays on the 20th I preached at Stratford & on the 27th at Aston as I have said. Next week a Mr Freeman, the Rector of Ashwicken near Lynn in Norfolk is coming here purposely to see a man, who has seen & conversed with Mr Jones, of which he was informed by Mr Rodwell. He is a man of talent & has lately published a life of Mr Kirby the great naturalist who was well acquainted with Mr Jones, whose life he appears also willing to publish if supplied with sufficient material, but this I fear he cannot obtain. I have applied in his behalf
(page 4)
to Mrs Haydon & others of the family, but they seem so little to have valued his papers as scarcely to have preserved any of them, not even his letters, or do not choose to make them public. On the 17th we expect Mrs Prowett & one of her daughters who have not been here for 20 years. Mary is sadly troubled with one of her teeth, which it is not thought expedient to extract. The rest are quite well & write in kindest love to you & all around you with your affectionate uncle
F. Fortescue Knottesford

Dear Edward had a return of his headache the week before last & prevented thereby from preaching a dedication sermon at Melrose. He is now better & was going to a great meeting at Arbroath since which I have not heard from him but fear the extreme heat of this weather will cause a return of his complaint. Mr Corbett of Wilmcote was nearly killed in coming to our Jews [?] meeting last Wednesday, being thrown violently out of his carriage & falling on his head. He is not yet sensible & it is feared will not recover. We dined a large company on the lawn, as we had done two days before with a party. Present my congratulations to Mr Torlesse1 if you think it right to do so.
1. This is believed to refer to the Reverend Charles Martin Torlesse, the Vicar of Stoke Nayland, whose orphaned niece Frances Jane Torlesse had married Mrs Liveing's son, Dr Edward Liveing, on the 29th Aug 1854

Envelope addressed to:

Mrs Liveing
Stoke by Nayland

On the envelope is endorsed, in a different handwriting:
F F K - C M L
5 (sic) Sep 1854
Congt ons on my father's marriage
Mrs Prowett (?) & one
of her daughters
staying at Alveston
after 20 yrs
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge.

17. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 14 May 1855.
Liveing Archive.
Alveston Manor
May 14th, 1855
How kind it was of you, my dear niece to think of me on my birthday & to write me such a welcome letter on the occasion. I thank you sincerely for it, & can assure you in return that you were not forgotten on the following Sunday, when we drank your health at Billesley & most heartily wished for you & your family many happy returns of it. I have now the pleasure of announcing the birth of another grandson1 at Perth, of the portent (prospect)? of which I suppose you have been aware. I know not how far it may be a subject of congratulations except in so far as we are taught to consider the man as happy who has his quiver full & ought
(page 2)
therefore to look upon them as gifts from God & trust in Him to provide a sufficient maintenance for them in this world & to render them meet for the heavenly inheritance promised in the life to come. I have often observed that large families succeed better than small ones thereby connexions are diffused & enlarged & they are often able to assist & to promote each other's welfare. You have been greatly blessed, my dear niece in this respect, & have richly experienced the goodness of God towards (you2) & yours, that He is eminently the Father of the fatherless, & the Friend & Protector of the widow. You are peculiarly happy in the possession of dutiful & amiable children, in sons who promise to prove useful & ornamental members of society, & in daughters whose greatest pleasure it is to administer to your comfort. I congratulate you on the distinction already obtained by your eldest son3, who doubtless will rise to high honor (sic) in the literary world, having already produced a work of deep research, which may probably lead to a professorship in the university.
I find my infirmities increase as I must expect to do at my advanced age. Altho' still able to take my share of duty in the Church, for which I am thankful (and preached at Stratford on Palm Sunday & assisted the new Vicar at the Sacrament).
(page 3)
yet I experience the truth of the Psalmist's remark that our strength at fourscore years (and I count three years beyond it) that at the best it is but labor & sorrow4; toilsome days & wearisome nights are appointed me, & I had need daily & hourly to stand on my watchtower & be ready for a call at any moment. Life to me must be very uncertain, as it is indeed to all of us, but especially to the aged: & therefore I hope to have the satisfaction of seeing you once more, if it please God, & that nothing will prevent your coming to us some time in the course of the summer, & such of your dear family as can accompany you. The Dewes5 propose being with us during the month of June, after which we shall be ready to receive you & yours, as far as I am now aware. Should any impediment arise on either side, the plan can easily be adjusted & rearranged, but we shall certainly have no long visitors after that time. The expected visit of the Halls & Hasties is altogether uncertain if at all practicable. Dear Edward will not come till late in the year, after the Synod, but he would not be in the way of any one. I should have said that F.A. (Fanny Ann6) & the child are going on as well as possible; the event took place on Friday night. She is removed from the College to
(page 4)
Miss Lee's, who has become the Mistress of a Girls' School under their patronage, & has a house near, which is more quiet than her own would be, which is constantly interrupted by visitors. Edward got through his Lent & Easter duties better than usual as Fanny Anne told us, but has lately suffered from an attack of his old complaint. A new house is contemplated for the Provost with a garden which will be a great accommodation for them & for the children. It is now building in a good situation & equally near to the Cathedral. They have also got a Grammar School for boys independent of the College School with playground, which will be great advantage, & they have many scholars. This is under the superintendence of one of the Canons, for it is to be a working model Cathedral, such as will probably be proposed by the Cathedral Commission. So poor Goymer is gone to his rest! He has been a useful man in his generation. In all my great collection of hymns I could not find one for Rogation Week, except in his book. I wish it was more widely known & circulated. It is the only one that provides hymns for every possible occasion, & is upon the whole the best of any. Mr Jackson & Maria7 write with me in kindest love to you & all around you & in the hope of seeing you
I remain,
my dear niece,
your most affectionate uncle,
F. Fortescue Knottesford
(continued on page 1)
We have great reason to be thankful for the appointment of Mr Granville. He has every requisite qualification for his position except a knowledge of & taste for music, so that he keeps up every thing as before yet our services are not so correct as they have been. He is a most laborious clergyman firm in his principles, & conciliating in his manners. Besides the daily service in quire he has established a lecture every Wednesday evening at St James's the new church which was consecrated last month & also on alternate Sundays at Shottery & Luddington. The whole Harding family took a pleasurable dinner with us, on Easter Monday, the day before they left Stratford. They have since been with Ld Denbigh8 at Paris9
1. This must be a child of Edward and Fanny Anne Fortescue, as Edward was Provost of Perth Cathedral in 1855. There is no other record of this grandchild, and no mention of him in the 1861 census; it may be that the child did not survive until 1861.
The word "you" is not in the text of the letter, and has been inserted by the editor.
3. George Downing Liveing [99] became Professor of Chemistry at Cambridge University, and a Fellow.
Psalm 90.10: "The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labour and sorrow, for it is soon cut off, and we fly away." (Authorised Version)
5. Francis's daughter Frances Catherine and her husband the Reverend Joseph Dewes (the Rector of Rockland St Mary, in Norfolk), and their children.
6. Edward's wife, Frances Anne nee Spooner.
7. Francis's daughter Maria Margaretta, nee Knottesford, and her husband the Reverend Francis George Jackson.
8. This must refer to William Feilding, the 7th Earl of Denbigh (1796 - 1865), who held the title from 1800 (after first his father and then his grandfather had passed away) until his own death in 1865. Lord Denbigh became Deputy Lieutenant of Warwickshire in 1825, and it is understood that his family's ancestral home was at Newnham Paddox, near Rugby, in Warwickshire.
9. This word cannot be deciphered with any confidence. It does not appear to be "Paddox", which one might have expected. It could possibly be "Paris", although it is difficult to understand what Lord Denbigh and the Hardings would be doing there.

Envelope addressed to:
Mrs Liveing
Stoke by Nayland

On the envelope is inscribed, in a different hand:
F F K - C M L
14 May 1855
Thanks for Birthday
CongT [ratulations] - 83
Death of Goymer - of Stoke
His good collection
of hymns
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge.

18. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 8 Apr 1857.
Liveing Archive.
Alveston Manor House
April 8, 1857
As you my dear niece kindly remembered me on the completion of my 85th year which kindness I gratefully acknowledge, so I do not forget that this day is the anniversary of your birth upon which I with no less sincerity & affection congratulate you, wishing most heartily that, by the blessing of God, you may be permitted to witness many, many happy returns of it. I have been grieved to hear of your trouble & anxiety respecting your dear daughter Charlotte1, whose health
(page 2)
I am sorry to find was not so far improved by her sea voyage, as might have been expected, & that therefore your anxiety is to be renewed by a second application of the same distressing remedy, which however I trust will, thro' mercy, be attended by more beneficial results. It was a kind thought you entertained of coming to see us, & joining us on the 4th ult. & I thank you for it. Glad indeed should we have been to see you, & I hope as you are not going to Ventnor you may still put it in execution. I have deeply lamented the not seeing you, or any of your dear family for so long a time & especially for the cause of your long absence & now I must beg that if possible it may not much longer be deferred, for if I am ever to see you again it must be, I think, in the course of this summer for I have been so much worse during the last winter, that I cannot expect to pass thro' another. My weakness & infirmity sadly encrease [sic], but why do I age (?)
(page 3)
sadly, for thereby I humbly hope they approach nearer to their termination: to an end of sorrow & an end of sin, thro' his all prevailing intercession whose all atoning sacrifice we are now solemnly commemorating. I have been to church today for the first time this week, since Sunday I read & took a part in the service, & I have great reason to be thankful for the many great & undeserved mercies & privileges I enjoy especially that of being able still to take my portion of duty, my brain being as sound as ever, but I am unable to walk so far as Stratford, so that I have attended none of the daily services there since Christmas. There are sermons every evening this week at St James's the new church, & I hope (which I very seldom do) to go out this evening to hear Mr Barnard our new Vicar2 in whose ministrations I of course feel much interested. He is a learned man, reads the SS [scriptures] in Hebrew & Syriac, of very popular manners, & attentive to the poor, so that the improvement in our parish is as you will suppose, very great. He is a cousin of Lord Willoughby. Mr Granville too is most diligent in his laborious vocation, devoting himself wholly to his work. All the services are continued indeed encreased [sic]: for the sacrament is administered in one place or other every Sunday, & twice at 8 in the morning.
(page 4)
The choir is in the highest order equal to any in our Cathedrals. You have a great deal to see when you come. The proper position of the Choir in the body of the Church & removal of the organ into the transept, which allows the whole length of the nave to be seen, & opens to view the fine West Window. You ask about our friends at Perth. The accounts from thence have been on the whole very good. Edward has been with the Bishop to a consecration of a new church at Bridge of Allan, a beautiful place near Stirling, & was to preach on the occasion last Thursday. It is a place of fashionable resort on account of mineral waters, which rise there. Edward Junior is very highly favoured in getting a Cadetship thro' the influence of the Bishop of London3 who amongst his various extensive patronage is a Visitor of the India College, & has procured an immediate appointment to the best Residency, Bengal, with the best pay, which he will receive just as soon as he is enrolled after his examination, in order to which the Bishop has recommended an excellent tutor at Eltham. The Bishop seems very fond of him, & spoke highly of him in a letter to me. He has seen a good deal of him for he has been twice staying with him, which is a great advantage to him, & has had the advice of his physician for the bleeding at the nose
(the top of page 1, continued from page 4)
which I am glad to hear is in the way to be healed otherwise I should fear his passing the medical examination. It is a provision for life if he obtains it, & is therefore to be considered as a great benefit. I am surprised at his choice, but as he has made it, it is very fortunate, for in the Church it would have been 7 years before the Bishop could have provided for him; & a man may serve God in the army, as well as in any other profession, tho' the dangers & temptations are greater, but not now so great as they were & he will be introduced to the best society. I think his father will feel it much. He expects to come up in June to provide his outfit, they will be I suppose at London House, where we have also had an invitation, but I am not in a fit state to accept it. All well here & write in best love to all with your affectionate uncle F.F. Knottesford
Mrs Liveing's daughter Charlotte was born on the 4th November 1838, and was therefore aged 18 at the date of this letter. Whatever her illness was, and whether or not a second sea voyage was helpful to her, she survived until the age of 58, dying on the 16th November 1896, in Newnham, near Cambridge.
Francis customarily worshipped at Holy Trinity Church, in Stratford upon Avon (the principal town church), rather than at the recently-founded church of St James's, Alveston. It is therefore assumed that Mr Barnard is the new Vicar of Holy Trinity, rather than of St James's, and that Francis's fulsome praise of the choir on page 4 relates to Holy Trinity.
3. At the date of this letter the Bishop of London was Archibald Tait (later Archbishop of Canterbury), who was Edward Fortescue's brother-in-law (Edward was married to Fanny Anne Spooner, and Bishop Tait was married to her sister Catherine Spooner).

Envelope addressed to:

Mrs Liveing
Stoke by Nayland

Endorsed on the envelope, in a different hand:
F F K - C M L
8 April 1857
Birthday Cong[ratulations]
Hopes to see C M L
at Alveston
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge.

19. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 15 Apr 1858.
Liveing Archive.
Alveston Manor House
April 15, 1858
It was very kind of you my dear niece to think of me & favour me with a congratulatory letter at the time when you were mourning over the loss of a valued & useful friend & relative1. We sympathized with you on the occasion, but felt thankful as doubtless you also do, that his life was spared as long as his kind & valuable advice & assistance were necessary for your comfort & advantage. Your excellent sons are now fully equal to the transaction of all business that may require their attention, & their dutiful & exemplary conduct must be a constant source of satisfaction to you.
(page 2)
It was remarkable & melancholy that the same post brought the intelligence of the death of three persons in whom we had an interest. That of your good brother in law; of Mrs Farrand a friend & connexion of Mr Jackson & of Georgina Harding, all of whom died at a distance from home, the latter at Hastings where the family had been ever since Christmas, on account of her health, & who had been a great sufferer from a very painful disorder. I have been & am extremely weak, but was very desirous to take my accustomed portion of duty on the great festival of Easter, & it pleased my heavenly Father so to strengthen me at the time as to enable [me] to do so, for which I have great reason to be thankful, as also for many great & undeserved blessings both spiritual & temporal which thro' mercy I am permitted to enjoy. I have never been detained from Church or from preaching, & last Sunday was at Stratford & on Monday evening presided at an interesting lecture on Australia, when the Town Hall was fuller than I ever saw it on a similar occasion.
(page 3)
I cannot be said to suffer any of those pains to which age is subject from rheumatics & other causes; but no one can tell what the distress arising from extreme weakness is, but those who experience it. The distracted state of the Church both here & in Scotland has agitated me greatly & perhaps encreased (sic) my indisposition. Happy is it that there is a haven of rest & peace for all who seek to attain it & far better is it to be go[ing] out of the world at such an eventful period than to be coming into it. The dissensions in Scotland far exceed those in our own church & what will be the end, no one can foresee. We have, however, the satisfaction of knowing that dear Edward's health is much better than usual, notwithstanding his great trials & labors. He has the whole congregation with him amounting to 600, including two or three great lairds. He came to England, & saw his son2 set off from Southampton, & spent a few days at London House, where were visiting at the same time 7 bishops & the Deans of Westminster & St. Paul's. Young Edward has introductions to the Governor General & most influential persons & the
(page 4)
new Bishop who is a great friend of the Bishop of London; & preached his consecration sermon. We heard of him from the Redlers [?], & expect soon to hear of his arrival in India. We remembered you on the 8th ult. & drank your health to the enjoyment of many happy years to come. I find that you & Mr Dewe3 are of the same age. They are very happy in their Bishop, who is to visit them in the course of the summer, as he will all the Rural Deans, & spend a Sunday & preach at the parish church & see the clergy in the neighbourhood a very excellent plan. Death makes great ravages around us: Mrs Phillips was buried yesterday: Mrs Boultbee Mrs Crawford & Mrs Buddeson also died lately. & I am yet left to enter my 87th year, the last birthday I ever expect to witness, & it was connected with the celebration of our highest religious solemnities4 to my joy & comfort. The dear children's coughs was been very [?] affected by the late severe weather; today there is a relaxation of it, & I hope they will derive benefit from it. All here unite in kindest love to all & best wishes for your continued health & happiness, with your affectionate uncle,
Fr. Fortescue Knottesford
(Continued top page 1)
My great age & infirmity must plead an excuse for the inaccuracies & egotism of this unworthy reply to your kind remembrance of me. I am thankful that I saw you last year.

1. Charles Liveing was the younger brother of Mrs Liveing's late husband Dr Edward Liveing. He had worked as a First Clerk at the National Debt Office, in London, until his retirement by reason of ill health in 1856. He died on the 29th March, 1858.

2. Edward's son (also Edward) had just received an appointment as an officer in the Indian Army (the Bengal Regiment), through the patronage of his uncle, Archibald Tait, the Bishop of London (later Archbishop of Canterbury), who was married to Catherine Spooner, his mother's sister. Francis gives news of the appointment in his letter of the 8th April 1857.
3. The Reverend Joseph Dewe, husband of Francis's second daughter Frances Catherine, and Rector of Rockland St Mary, in Norfolk.
4. In 1858 Good Friday fell on the 2nd April, and Easter Day fell on the 4th April.

Envelope addressed to:
Mrs Edward Living
nr Colchester

On the envelope is endorsed, in a different hand:
F F K - C M L
15 Apr 1858
refs. to Uncle Charles's death
young E Fortescue
going to India
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge.

20. Francis F Knottesford Letter: To Catherine Maria Liveing nee Downing of Nayland SFK, 6 Apr 1859, His last letter.
Liveing Archive.
Alveston Manor House
April 6, 1859
I hasten to thank you & all around you my dear niece, that I may return your kind & affectionate congratulations in kind upon our own natal day, whereon I sincerely reciprocate all the good feelings you have so obligingly expressed, & heartily wish & pray that you may be permitted to witness many, many returns thereof, to your own comfort & happiness & that of your amiable family. I never forget you on that day nor any day omit to remember you at the throne of Grace. That I should have been preserved so long as to celebrate 87 birthdays is what I never expected.
(page 2)
& more especially since Christmas did I doubt the continuance of my present life till Monday last, for I have felt the effects of the last more than any previous winter, which tho' respectably [?] mild, has been no less singularly unhealthy, but during the last week I have recovered strength, & on Sunday was better able to perform my accustomed duties than I have been for some weeks. This is in many respects a great mercy, more especially as it affords me a longer space for repentance & preparation for that change which cannot be far distant; but I must wait in faith & patience for the appointed time which we are sure will be the best time. You have had great & various troubles, my dear niece during the last few years; but all I doubt not for good, & it is thro' much tribulation that we must enter into the Kingdom of God. As regards your own immediate family you have of late been wonderfully relieved by the improved health of your beloved children: which I trust will ultimately
(page 3)
be confirmed. The unexpected death of Mr Ambrose1 must have been a great shock to his friends & relatives. Thank you for your thoughtful consideration respecting the seal. Our accounts from Perth improve. Edward is recovering, but very slowly. He eats & sleeps better, but is not yet able to perform his accustomed duties in the Church. He preached a Consecration Sermon at some church last week, according to promise, but it was rather too much for him. I had a letter from his own hand on Monday, wherein he states what I am sure you will be glad to hear, that the Bishop of London2, who has just been appointed a Governor of the Chester House, has sent his first nomination as a foundation scholar to one of his boys, whichever may be of age at the time of the next vacancy. This is a great boon, possessing considerable advantages. Johnny a fine tall lad more than 6 feet high & is only 15 years old is gone by the Bishop's desire to the great school at Marlborough of which his great friend the present Bishop of Calcutta was the master.
(page 4)
It will be very pleasant to you, & to Rocklanders3 to have Mr & Mrs Ingram4 in their neighbourhood. George Dewe5 is to be entered this term, probably at Catherine College6, & to commence residence in October. And now I hope, from the improvement of your family should life7 be preserved, that I may have the great pleasure of seeing you here once more this summer, with such of your daughters as can conveniently accompany you. I thank God all are tolerably well here. We have escaped the fever which was at one time so prevalent but has now subsided. Mary8 is still poorly at times, but I hope will gradually gain strength. Notwithstanding what I have said my weakness is very great & of course encreasing (sic), but I have abundant reason for thankfulness in being as I am: my hand you see is as firm as ever9, but my legs will not carry me beyond the garden. I am going today to Mr Lucy's to meet the Commissioners, who are to propose some wholesome regulations respecting the School & the Schoolmaster. One of them I think is a Mr Fearon.
(top of page 1, continued from page 4)
All here unite in best wishes & congratulations with, dear niece, your most affectionate uncle,
Fr. Fortescue Knottesford

Kind love to all.
Young Edward seems to be happy in his position. I have had two letters from him lately. He is now in Nepaul. He has changed his Regiment & is now in the 6th Queens Service an old & respectable regiment & soon expects a Lieutenancy.
1. Mr John Ambrose, a farmer, of Copford Lodge, Essex, died suddenly on the 26th February, 1859. He was a connection of Mrs Liveing, as his wife was Julia Liveing, the eldest daughter of Thomas Liveing, of Harwich.
2. Archibald Tait, the then Bishop of London (and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury), was married to Catherine Spooner, the sister of Edward Fortescue's wife Fanny Anne Spooner, and as such was Edward's brother-in-law.
3. The "Rocklanders" are Francis's daughter Frances Catherine and her husband the Reverend Joseph Dewe, who was Rector of Rockland St Mary, in Norfolk.
4. The Reverend Rowland Ingram is said to have been the priest of Walsham-le-Willows, Suffolk, during the period 1859-60, and then to have been the Rector of Great Ellingham with Little Ellingham, Norfolk, during the years 1860-1872. (Walsham le Willows is about 37 miles from Rockland, and about 40 miles from Stoke-by-Nayland; Great Ellingham is about 23 miles from Rockland, and some 60 miles from Stoke-by-Nayland).
5. George Downing Dewe, one of Mr and Mrs Dewe's sons.
6. Possibly St Catharine's College, Cambridge.
7. Francis is presumably referring to the continuance of his own life.
8. This may be Francis's other daughter, Maria Margaretta, the wife of the Reverend Francis George Jackson. It is believed that Maria and her husband lived with Francis at Alveston Manor, and Mr Jackson often assisted with the services at Wilmcote Church.
9. This is, regrettably, not altogether true: some of the handwriting of this letter is very difficult!

Envelope addressed to:
Mrs Liveing
Stoke by Nayland

Endorsed on the envelope, in a different hand:
F F K - C M L
6 Ap 1859 -
his last letter
Transcribed by Dr S Lapidge.


Francis married Maria DOWNING [7075] [MRIN: 2353], daughter of Rev George DOWNING [508] and Catherine CHAMBERS [509], in 1805. (Maria DOWNING [7075] was born on 25 Jun 1774 in Ovington ESS and died 4th Qtr 1852 in Stoke By Nayland SFK.)

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